LIST OF ACCEPTED PAPERS (IEE CP’21)

Note: the review process still ongoing and more accepted abstracts and papers will be announced soon!

Article Title: Carbene Based Materials for Organic Solar Cells

Author(s): Gergana Kostadinova, Rumen Lyapchev, Joanna Stoycheva, Julia Romanova and Alia Tadjer.

Country: Bulgaria.

Abstract

Successful strategies for the modelling of singlet fission chromophores – highly efficient organic materials in solar cells, will be demonstrated on a series of theoretically designed NHC- carbene dimers. All compounds are synthetically feasible and thus suitable for practical application. They differ in topology, conformation, and type of substituents, which allows us, using quantum-chemical methods, to reveal the intimate correlation between structure and excited state properties. Several potential candidates for singlet fission chromophores were discovered in the series. The relationship between molecular conformation and singlet fission propensity is demonstrated for the first time.

Keywords

singlet fission, excited states, photovoltaics, quantum-chemistry.

Highlights
  • The cis-conformers of all NHC-based dimers are more favorable for singlet fission than the trans-analogs.
  • The substituent position has a strong impact on the singlet fission propensity of the dimers.
  • Several chromophores are identified as potential photovoltaic materials able to undergo exergonic singlet fission. They contain the following substituents at position 4: -C≡C-C≡N, -C≡C-C≡C-C≡C, -C≡C-C≡C-C≡N.


Corresponding author Biography

Gergana Kostadinova is a second-year student in the B.Sc. program Chemistry and Informatics at the University of Sofia (Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy). Her research interests are in the field of computational chemistry, molecular design of materials for organic solar cells, particularly of singlet fission chromophores. She is also an active team member of two national research projects. Recently, she had a chance to present her first project results at three scientific conferences and is the first author of a conference proceedings paper on the topic.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Can there be a universal phase locked loop?

Author(s): Reyes Sánchez-Herrera, Gabriel Gómez, José M Andújar, Marco Márquez, Andrés Mejías.

Country: Spain.

Abstract

This paper aims to highlight the drawbacks of the most common phase locked loop (PLL) circuits to operate as universal PLLs. The phase locked loop tracks the phase of an input signal. These devices are necessary in different disciplines for which the input signal conditions are very different. In fact, they are used in synchronization to the grid waveforms, in the communications applications as frequency modulation or amplitude modulation, and in the measurement of the motors speed, among others. For each discipline, a different group of PLLs is used. Among all of them, the most appropriate to be used in several disciplines seems to be the designed to synchronize the grid. So, they are the chosen to be studied and test their behavior in different applications to find out the PLL which is useful in any application and which achieves to track the phase/frequency signal whose value is initially unknown. I. e. the universal PLL, useful in all the considered applications.

Thus, the most used PLL circuits to synchronize to the grid waveforms, able to work with an unknown initial value of the frequency, have been chosen from the technical literature. I.e. the Synchronous Reference Frame (SRF-PLL), the Second-Order Generalized Integrator (SOGI-PLL), and the Enhanced PLL (EPLL). Their performance has been studied in the monitoring of input signals with conditions different from those presented by the grid voltage, in synchronization. These different conditions are those that occur, for example, in communications applications. The results obtained, prove that the assessed PLLs present a good behavior if the filters and controlled involved in them are tunned to the input signal frequency. In this case, the PLLs provide a signal which tracks the input signal frequency. It could be thought they are universal PLL. However, if the value of the frequency is unknown, the tunning has to be carried out to an estimated frequency, different from the actual one. The results obtained in this paper prove that, in these new conditions, the assessed PLLs do not achieve to track the input signal frequency. Thus, the PLLs analyzed in this paper and carefully chosen are not able to carry out frequency sweeps. Therefore, any of them can be considered as the universal PLL.

Keywords

phase locked loop, frequency locked loop, modulated frequency, distortion

Highlights
  • Study of the drawbacks of the most common phase locked loop (PLL) circuits to operate as universal PLLs.
  • Performance of PLL circuits to synchronize to the grid waveforms where input signals present conditions different from those presented by the grid voltage, in syncronization, for example, in communications applications will be presented and discussed.
  • Results show that any of PLL circuits to synchronize to the grid waveforms can be considered as the universal PLL..


Corresponding author Biography

Gabriel Gomez Ruiz is research assistant in University of Huelva (Spain). Currently he works in the project “Construction, commissioning and testing of a remotely programable DC / AC inverter prototype that can be used connected to the grid or to power isolated loads.” In 2020 he obtained Industrial Electronic Engineering degree and now he’s studying a Master’s Degree in Industrial Engineering, both in University of Huelva.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Unlocking New Opportunities for the Photovoltaic Materials Market.

Author(s): Joanna Stoycheva, Alia Tadjer, Julia Romanova.

Country: Bulgaria

Abstract

Singlet fission (SF) is a photophysical process, occurring in organic materials and having the potential to boost the solar cells’ efficiency. Our study aims at guiding the way for molecular design of compounds, capable of SF. Doping of quinoid structures with Se or/and N-atoms turns out to be a productive strategy for that. Through functionalization and pH modulation, we succeeded to establish rules that link the molecular characteristics to the SF proclivity. Quantum chemical calculations at an appropriate level of theory show that all modelled structures satisfy the conditions, required for a successful fission of singlet excitons.

Keywords

singlet fission, organic photovoltaics, quantum chemistry, materials.

Highlights
  • Doping of quinoid structures with Se or/and N-atoms is a productive strategy for design of singlet fission materials.
  • Topology and functionalization are of great importance for singlet fission molecules.
  • For the first time, it is shown that pH modulation can affect the singlet fission proclivity..
Corresponding author Biography

Joanna Stoycheva has just received her Master’s degree in Computational Chemistry at Sofia University, Bulgaria. Her research interests are in quantum-chemical simulation of properties of novel materials. Joanna Stoycheva is exploring a functional class of singlet fission compounds with the aim of producing lighter, cheaper, and more efficient photovoltaic cells. In 2018, she received the “Student of the year” award in Bulgaria. She is an Erasmus+ and HPC-Europa3 fellow, and recently won the prestigious Swiss MARVEL fellowship for women in computational chemistry.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Methodological basis for selecting experimental research for building materials.

Author(s): Tatiana Eremina, Fedor Portnov.

Country: Russia.

Abstract

This paper for the first time proposes methodological frameworks built by generalizing empirical data on the mechanochemical characteristics of materials using interdisciplinary methods. This methodology optimizes research for any composite materials while maintaining targeted research methods and eliminating impractical and related experimental studies with reduced work costs and as a result of environmental impact.

Keywords

Fire safety; the performance of the designs; The physical and chemical properties of the materials; fire retardant; planning of experiment; interdisciplinary research methods.

Highlights
  • The physical and chemical properties of the composite materials were investigated.
  • Fire safety research is used by experiments of selecting building materials.
  • Interdisciplinary methods related experimental studies with reduced work costs as a result of environmental impact were proposed..


Corresponding author Biography

Tatiana Eremina. Search for scientific community (English-speaking, Spanish-speaking) for collaboration in Fire Safety area: scientific research, publications, guidelines development. Main research areas: Information-analytical model of safety management; Automatic system for detection of three-dimensional coordinates of ignition; Robotized mobile fire-suppression installations; Fire protection compositions, paints, lacquers with improved adhesive and heat-proof properties; Fire wall constructions (horizontal and vertical) for restriction of fire spread in the building; Software for fire risk assessment at industrial objects; Development of Code of practice for fire safety requirements in historic buildings; Device for remote supervision of fire protection properties for thin-layer coatings; Self-rescue devices for children and trainings. Interested in: Academic advising for Post-graduate students (Fire Safety), International grants, International consulting.

Fedor Portnov. Ph.D. specializes in fire protection of building materials and structures. He contributed to the development of the surface chemical modification of wood to reduce its smoke production in fire conditions

.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Interplay Bewteen Diradical Character and Stability in Singlet Fission Chromophores.

Author(s): Vaska Petakova, Joanna Stoycheva, Alia Tadjer and Julia Romanova.

Country: Bulgaria.

Abstract

It was recently demonstrated that molecules with low to intermediate diradical character are good candidates for singlet fission chromophores and are therefore promising for photovoltaics application. On the other hand, the diradical character can also be associated with low stability and high reactivity – undesired molecular features for practical utilization. Therefore, in order to reveal the relationship between diradical character – stability – singlet fission propensity, we have performed quantum-mechanical calculations on a series of o- and p-quinone methides. Most of the investigated compounds are reported in the literature and data on their stability and reactivity are available. The study allows us to conclude on the impact of molecular stability on the excited state properties and to explore the compromise between diradical character and singlet fission propensity from stability perspective.

Keywords

computational modelling, excited states, photovoltaics.

Highlights
  • The relationship between diradical character and stability is revealed by means of quantum-chemistry methods;
  • The study shed light on the stability requirements in singlet fission materials;
  • The findings can be used for the development of large scale computational screening procedures for new photovoltaic materials.


Corresponding author Biography

Vaska Petakova is a second year, B.Sc. student at the Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Sofia University. Since 2020 she is a research student in the group of Dr. Julia Romanova. Her research interests are in computational modeling of singlet fission materials for photovoltaics application.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: New urbanstyle technology – modular green roof and wall system.

Author(s): Natalia Shushunova, Elena Korol and Piero Bevilacqua.

Country: Russia

Abstract

In this paper, we describe the most innovative environmental projects and modular green technology as a key element of our urban spaces and the lungs of the cities. The decision to completely eliminate carbon fuels and reduce environmental pollution, make urban style more sustainable and friendly to the environment is reflected in the use of modular design and technological solutions for the building facades and roofs. A comprehensive analysis of the presented green systems allows to identify their shortcomings and show the advantages of modern modular greening technology using devices that integrate and convert solar and wind energy such as solar panels, micro wind turbines and modern automatic irrigation system. Ergonomic design is provided with the installation in various roof configurations and types such as green and blue roofs and using the system as a vertical gardening by construction of multilevel modular pot system. Another motivating factor will be the deeper appreciation of Green Environmental Protection and the relentless efforts of many governments to this end.

Keywords

Green building, green roof technology, manufacturability, sustainable development, urban health.

Highlights
  • The study applied methods of comparative analysis, network planning and scheduling theory methods for appraisal of modular greening technology
  • Technological indicators were determined for various types of green roofs systems.
  • Technological processes associated with the installation of various types of greening systems on the roof with minimizing the complexity of the processes due to the manufacturability of the roofing device were analyzed.


Corresponding author Biography

Shushunova Natalia — PhD, Lecturer of the Department of Complex security in construction, awarded by the medal “For merits in construction science and education” III degree (bronze), National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, 129337, Russian Federation, Moscow, Yaroslavskoe Shosse.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Analyzing the Effect of Cleaning on Anti Reflecting Coating of PV Module.

Author(s): Sanjay, Rohit Bharwaj, Anil K Berwal.

Country: India.

Abstract

Solar energy which is cheap and present in abundance in tropical and subtropical regions has been universally accepted as future source of energy and photovoltaic cells are considered as potential candidates to harness this energy. In the recent years, India being its proximity to equator has increased the installation of PV systems in a huge way because of the higher irradiation available in large part of the country. India has seasonal variations from extreme cold to scorching heat, sand & dust storms, fog and heavy rain fall during monsoon. All these extreme metrological conditions causes accumulation of soil on PV modules which adversely affect the optimized output of modules. Removing of dust & dirt from the surface of module require cleaning of the module surfaces at regular interval. For this study 12 PV module were selected out of which six were based on mono-crystalline silicon and another six were of poly-crystalline silicon technology of 6 samples each. All the PV modules were made up of 72 cells configuration with 6 rows x 12 columns. Initially, after recording the important parameters such as Voc, Isc, Vmp, Imp, and cell efficiency etc as per manufacturers information the Visual Inspection Test was conducted of all the 12 PV modules as IEC and internal standard protocol. Electroluminescence Test, STC Performance Test, ultrasonic thickness test, reflectance and soiling test were conducted and the data recorded as base data.

To simulate the extreme soiling conditions on the solar PV modules the desert soil which is mostly sandy soil (90-95%) was used. To study the soiling effect the scale of 100 cycles was taken which was further divided into 3 stages, first stage was from 0 to 30 cycle, second stage from 31 to 60 cyles and third stage from 61 to 100 cycles. The desert soil was collected in a cloth bag of fabric with small pores through which fine sand particles were sprinkled manually on the solar PV modules. Initially, for first and second stage the 26 grams of fine desert soil taken in a cloth bag and out of which only 35 to 40% (approx 10gm) soil passes through the pores and accumulated on PV modules. For third stage a bag of 180 gm desert soil was used to sprinkle 50 gm of soil on the surface of test modules. Dry Robotic Cleaning Technology is used for cleaning of the panels. Impact of regular cleaning on panel performance was evaluated by analyzing the effect of cleaning on the glass surface and Anti-reflection coating present on the PV modules. The parameters like; total reflectance, diffuse reflectance and spectral reflectance of light from the module surface were calculated and removal of ARC coating was assessed by performing Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement Test at eight different location of the PV modules.

Keywords

soiling, anti reflection coating, PV modules.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Aggregation and Flexibility for Grids’ Operation: the EU Path Toward the Opening of the Ancillary Services Market to Distributed Energy Resources.

Author(s): Davide Falabretti, Francesco Gulotta, Dario Siface.

Country: Italy.

Abstract

The present paper proposes an analysis of EU policies related to the enabling of the Distributed Energy Resources  (DERs) participation into the Ancillary Service Market (ASM). Indeed, the rising of renewables and DERs penetration in the power system recently called for the enlargement of the pool of actors that can actively participate in the grid balancing. Therefore, Europe, through directives and guidelines, is gradually fostering the involvement of DERs into the ASM. This paper firstly provides an overview of the regulations actually in place in the EU Member States concerning the participation of DERs into the energy markets. Then, a detailed analysis of the Italian framework is proposed. In the last years, Italy has undertaken a process aimed to increase the observability of DERs, through the installation of suitable monitoring and communication devices, and to enable the provision of ancillary services by dispersed units. The main features and the preliminary results of this process are analyzed and commented, highlighting the benefits and opportunities related to it.

Keywords

electricity markets, aggregation, ancillary services, distributed resources, energy policies.

Highlights

The present paper proposed:

  • A general overview of the European energy framework and its foreseen evolution to achieve the ambitious environmental targets set in the Paris Agreements.
  • An analysis of the energy market policies in Europe related to the participation of aggregates of Distributed Energy Resources into the electricity market.
  • A detailed examination of the path undertaken in Italy to improve the observability of the Distributed Energy Resources and to qualify aggregates of dispersed resources to provide balancing services to the power system..


Corresponding author Biography

Francesco Gulotta is currently a Ph.D. student of Electrical Engineering at Politecnico di Milano, where he obtained a M.Sc. in Energy Engineering. He is also a candidate for the EIT Urban Mobility Doctoral Training Network. His research interests include the provision of ancillary services from distributed resources, energy storage systems and electric vehicles.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: A comparative study of the thermal behavior of Li-ion batteries with different geometries, capacities, cathode materials.

Author(s): Khalid ZIAT, Hasna LOUAHLIA, Hamid GUALOUS.

Country: France.

Abstract

Li-ion batteries are nowadays widely used in electric vehicles, portable devices and smart grids. They are commercialized in different geometries, capacities and serval technologies depending on users’ requirements. During operating time, heat is generated inside Li-ion batteries due to chemical reactions which provides a temperature rise. Non-controllable thermal behavior of these batteries may lead to detoriation of their performance and may cause also a thermal runaway. In this study, A comparison of the thermal behavior of five li-ion batteries is performed. Used batteries are: LFP (lithium iron phosphate) prismatic (72Ah,60Ah,20Ah), NMC (Nickel Manganese Cobalt) prismatic (53Ah) and NMC cylindrical (3Ah). All batteries are tested under different climate conditions and consecutive charge/discharge cycles were applied. The application of consecutive charge/discharge cycles aims to describe the temperature profiles and difference with the ambient in quasi-stationary regime. Constant current was used during each charge/discharge cycle, maximum and minimum voltage recommended by manufactures were chosen as cut of voltage. K-type thermocouples and heat flux sensors are used to measure respectively the temperature and external heat dissipation. The results show a ‘V’ shape during a cycle in quasi-stationary regime for all tested batteries. Moreover, the temperature difference increases for decreasing ambient temperature.

Keywords

Li-ion batteries, Battery surface temperature, Charge/Discharge cycle.

Highlights
  1.  The thermal behavior of five commercialized Li-ion batteries is performed for different ambient temperatures.
  2.  A decrease in batteries temperature rise  for increasing ambient temperature.
  3.  A linear increase of batteries specific heat capacity within the ambient temperature increase.
  4. No dependency of the battery thermal conductivity to ambient temperature.
Corresponding author Biography

ZIAT Khalid – PhD student in thermal Engineering from the university of Caen Normandy, France working on the project “Li-ion batteries thermal management systems application: electric vehicles”.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: A low-budget mathematically scalable sensor solution to reduce energy consumption in buildings.

Author(s): Barrazueta Paccha Robinson Adrian, Castro Mendieta José Raúl.

Country: Ecuador.

Abstract

Reducing the consumption of electrical equipment such as air conditioning and lighting in buildings is a challenge around the world. Sensor-based control systems supported by intelligent, adaptive mathematical algorithms can control electrical equipment optimally to save energy and maintain user satisfaction. The system combines PIR sensors, low-consumption temperature and lighting sensors that analyze the characteristics of the environment and allow efficient control decisions to be made in electrical equipment such as air conditioning and lighting system present in the building. This paper presents the design and implementation of the proposed system in a real room and the analysis of the system implementation in a simulation for a building. The simulations of total energy consumption during a period of one year of an occupied building were carried out to verify the performance and energy saving in some scenarios of climatic conditions. The proposed system reduces total energy consumption by 10%.

Keywords

wireless sensor networks, power management, energy efficiency.

Highlights
  • The occupation and information on environmental variables provide useful information for the control of energy consuming equipment present in a building.
  • The data provided by sensors requires mathematical techniques for its use in the efficient control of equipment.
  • With the mathematical analysis of environmental and occupancy data, energy consumption in lighting and air conditioning equipment is reduced.


Corresponding author Biography

Robinson Adrián Barrazueta Paccha has received his engineering degree in electronics and telecommunications in the year 2021, doing his thesis work on automatic control focused on reducing energy consumption at Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, an Ecuadorian university that excels in scientific research. This is his first published work and presented at a conference on energy engineering..

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Exploring the sustainability of cable lines in fire case.

Author(s): Tatiana Eremina, Dmitry Korolchenko.

Country: Russia.

Abstract

This paper presents a statistical analysis of the fire hazard of cable lines. Basic properties of cable lines of different types in a fire are specified. Factors affecting the sustainability of cable lines in the event of a fire are identified. An assessment of the sustainability of cable lines in fire conditions in accordance with GOST IEC 60331-21-2011 and GOST IEC 60332-3-22-2011 was made. The results are used for provision of fire safety in buildings and facilities during their operation.

Keywords

fire danger of cable lines; fire resistance; limit state of the cable; fire spread; fire influence.

Highlights
  • The study of the stability features of cable lines in fire conditions showed that there is a dependence on the insulation of cable lines, on the type of cables and the method of their installation.
  • The safety of cable lines is an integral part of integrated safety in the construction of buildings and structures, as well as in their further operation.
  • The results of this study can serve as a basis for the design of cable lines and electrical installations, the preparation of technical documentation and specifications..
Corresponding author Biography

Dmitrii Korolchenko. Ph.D., Associate Professor, Member of the International Academy of Ecology and Life Safety Sciences Area of Professional Interests: Fire Safety Key Achievements: Under his leadership were registered the following patents: Laboratory stand with simulation of the sign of dynamic wind load for testing of hinged facade systems; Fire furnace for testing construction structures on fire resistance.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Modeling and simulation of a Web-of-Cells architecture using Matlab/Simulink.

Author(s): Mohamed Faradji, Toufi Madani Layadi, Colak Ilhami and Khaled Roubah.

Country: Algeria.

Abstract

Nowadays, the Web-Of-Cells (WOC) represents an alternative strategy for solving communication, generation and distribution problems in smart grids that integrate Hybrid Renewable Energy Sources (HRES). In this paper a simulation method of WOC architecture with a new voltage control model have been proposed.

The proposed method is summarized in three main points: First modeling of the WOC taking into account the voltage control model has been developed. Then, simulation of the WOC in Matlab/Simulink software is realized. During the simulation of the WOC architecture, profiles of data are considered. Finally, simulation results and explanations are discussed.

The study proved that the integration of voltage control technique in WOC architecture allows optimizing the reverse power flows, local congestions and voltage problems.

Keywords

Web-Of-Cells Modeling, Smart grids, Hybrid Renewable Energy Sources, voltage control strategy, Matlab/Simulink.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: A pilot study on implementation of sustainable design and construction activities in highway development .

Author(s): RAJA RAFIDAH BT RAJA MUHAMMAD ROOSHDI.

Country: Malaysia.

Abstract

The construction industry is one of the major contributors to the CO2 emission which cause environmental impacts on the earth’s climate. Malaysian government is committed in reducing the CO2 by 40% in 2020 and 45% by 2030 as compared to the levels in 2005. Hence, there is a need to reduce the impact on the environment. Currently, Malaysia had developed several assessment tools such MyGHI, pHJKR and Infrastar. However, the implementation was still in not too much. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to identify the sustainable construction activities element that had been implement and to determine the most main criteria had been implemented in current highway construction project. The pilot study was based on sustainable design and construction activities scorecard in MyGHI. The case studies were chosen based on the stages of the project such as the designing and planning stage, constructing stage, and operating and maintaining stage. The results of the pilot test for case studies had been discussed in focus group discussion. The focus group had been chosen among the expertise in highway development. The experts agreed with all the results that had been gathered during the pilot test. The scorecard of sustainable design and construction activities would be used in the future assessment of highway. The experts had also agreed that highway development in Malaysia is ready for green highway development. All the case studies had gathered 47% until 80% of points. However, the total point scores obtained by different highway projects were considered comparatively and moderately and indicated that the current highway construction practices need to be improved with the sustainable element during highway development. Based on these results, it was clearly discovered that green practices in terms of design and construction were already applied by all three highway projects in Malaysia.

Keywords

Sustainable development, green highway, assessment tools, pilot study.

Highlights
  • The results of the pilot test for case studies had been discussed in focus group discussion. The experts agreed with all the results that had been gathered during the pilot test.
  • All the case studies had gathered 47% until 80% of points. However, the total point scores obtained by different highway projects were considered comparatively and moderately and indicated that the current highway construction practices need to be improved with the sustainable element during highway development.
  • Based on these results, it was clearly discovered that green practices in terms of design and construction were already applied by all three highway projects in Malaysia.
Corresponding author Biography

Dr Raja Rafidah – PhD in Civil Engineering from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Johor Bharu, Malaysia on the project “An assessment tools of sustainable design and construction activities for green highway”. Now she is a senior lecturer at University Teknologi MARA Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. She also an author/co-author of more than (10) research articles.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Flow Field Analysis of HBF rotor under Distortion.

Author(s): Kai Zhang, Hua Ouyang, Yadong Wu, AJ Wang.

Country: China

Abstract

In this paper, we discuss different distortion effects on stability. The analysis of the three different gaps of 0.03C, 0.01C and 0.016C shows that the instability of the fan rotor after the blockage is mainly caused by the inlet distortion. What is more, the blockage is mainly caused by the flow separation of the suction surface of the blade under distortion. Different from the clean inlet flow, leakage vortex in the tip clearance is no longer the main cause.

The main factor affecting the stability of the fan rotor is the inlet flow angle of the leading edge of the fan. The greater the deviation of the airflow angle, the more serious the instability. With the same intensity of distortion, the distortion of the tip position will cause greater instability compared to the distortion away from the tip position. This is because the instability flow at the tip of the blade will evolve in the flow and cause high‐energy irregular flow. In this chapter, this is reflected in the strength of the leading edge overflow. The total pressure distortion causes the deviation of the airflow angle. Then the deviation of the airflow angle causes the leading edge overflow. Overflow at the leading edge causes flow separation of the suction surface, and flow separation of the suction surface causes channel blockage. The channel blockage develops to the end and eventually leads to a stall. Through the comparative analysis of four different circumferential total pressure distortions, the concept of the dynamic disorder is proposed. This method is based on the observation of the unstable flow field, and the author defines the measurement parameters of the degree of unstable flow. The size of this parameter represents the degree of unstable flow.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Pending Registration

Article Title: Biochar’s role in soil health and food quality: a case study of soil microbiome improvement against rot disease with Chinese Panax ginseng grown in a continuously cropped Alfisol.

Author(s): Genxing Pan.

Country: China.

Abstract

Soil health and food safety was increasingly advocated, particularly with COVID-19. Improved growth with biochar soil amendment (BSA) through reducing incidence of plant pathogens was addressed as system acquainted resistance. A continuously cropped Alfisol with Chinese Pantax ginseng was amended at 20 t ha-1 respectively with maize (MB) and wood (WB) biochar, compared to manure compost (MC) as control. Annually, mineral (MCF) was supplied at 900 kg ha-1 yr-1 for MC while biochar compound fertilizer (BCF) at 600 kg ha-1 yr-1 for BSA, respectively. With improved survival rate and growth traits, root biomass increased by 25% and 27%, but total ginsenosides unchanged and increased by 10%, respectively under WB and MB compared to MC. Relevantly, bacterial abundance was increased significantly and insignificantly while soil fungal abundance increased by 96.2% and 384.6%. With changes in microbial richness and diversity, community structure both of soil bacteria and fungi was seen altered with biochar amendments. Under WB and MB respectively over MC, abundance of pathogenic Fusarium spp. was significantly decreased by 19% and 35%, in addition to higher abundance of beneficial bacterial species such as Penicillium spp.. And, abundance proportion of pathotrophic fungi to the fungal total significantly decreased while that of Arbuscular mycorrhizal very significantly increased in WB and MB, respectively compared to MC. Thus, BSA and biochar fertilizer, particularly with maize residue biochar, could be a practical measure to improve soil health and ensure growth and functional quality of ginseng roots in continuously cropped fields mainly through improving soil microbiome.

Keywords

biochar, panax ginseng, soil amendment, root rot disease, soil health, food quality.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Pending Registration

Article Title: Optical Analysis for a Honeycomb Solar Receiver Using a Point-Focus Concentrator.

Author(s): N. Aracely Cisneros-Cárdenas, Rafael E. Cabanillas-López, Ricardo A. Pérez-Enciso, Carlos A. Pérez-Rábago, Rafael García-Gutiérrez.

Country: Mexico.

Abstract

In this work we present an optical analysis for three different hydraulic diameter honeycomb receivers considering the concentrated solar radiation distribution generated by a point-focus concentrator. The analysis was carried out in order to determine the amount of concentrated solar radiation received in it, as well as the shape in which it is received and distributed within the structure, in addition to establishing the length of the receiver itself. The study which determines the location of the receiver on the optical axis of the concentrator is also presented. Ray tracing simulations were done using Tonatiuh considering the physical characteristics of the point-focus concentrator as well as the receiver. As results, it was revealed that around 96% of the concentrator solar radiation arrives to the receiver – inside and in the frontal side-, the rest it attributed to the losses for different factors.

Keywords

Honeycomb solar receiver, Optical analysis, Point-Focus concentrator.

Highlights
  • Optical analysis for three different hydraulic diameter honeycomb receivers is done to determine the amount of radiation received.
  •  Energy balance is done to corroborate the obtained results.
  • 3. 96% of the concentrated solar radiation arrives to the receiver.
Corresponding author Biography

PhD student at Engineering Science Postgrade in Chemical Engineering at University of Sonora, located in Hermosillo, Sonora. Her research topic is about solar chemistry to develop and construc a solar volumetric reactor for high temperature to produce hydrogen from methane. For now, the research is directed to the optical study of a parabolic dish collector to estimate the reactor’s dimensions.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Bio-hydrogenated diesel production from palm oil with process integration of hydrogen production and hydro-processing .

Author(s): Chaiwat Prapainainar.

Country: Thailand.

Abstract

Bio-hydrogenated diesel (BHD) or green diesel is a second generation liquid fuel that can be synthesized through hydrodeoxygenation reaction of fat and its derivatives. It has been expected to replace petroleum diesel and biodiesel due to structure stability and low sulphur. Nevertheless, BHD production still has limitation on the ground of high price for hydrogen feed. Thus, this study report feasibility study of an integrated process of hydrogen production and hydro-processing. The integrated process used refined bleached deodorized palm oil (RBDPO) as a feed. RDBPO was hydrolyzed to produce palm fatty acid (PFA) and glycerol. Glycerol was then fed to sorption-enhanced steam reforming to generate hydrogen gas. After that, bio-hydrogenated diesel was synthesized through hydro-processing between palm fatty acid and hydrogen. The simulation model using ASPEN Plus predicted 57.8 wt.% of overall yield of BHD generated and the integrated process can be self-reliable in hydrogen production without using hydrogen from external sources. Subsequently, production cost and economic profitability of the integrated process were estimated to determine the attractiveness on investment. It was found that total capital investment (TCI) of the production plant was M$25.87 and cost of production $0.52 per litre of BHD. Sensitivity analysis of net present value was conducted after that using three variables, namely RBDPO price, BHD price, and gasoline price. This process was compared with BHD synthesized from fatty acid methyl ester, FAME. At an equivalent capacity, BHD produced from PFA was inferior in term of overall yield, energy consumption and environmental impact.

Keywords

Bio-hydrogenated diesel, hydro-processing, sorption-enhanced steam reforming.

Highlights
  • Two bio-hydrogenated diesel production processes from palm oil with in-process hydrogen production were studied
  • Production process of biodiesel and palm fatty acid integrated with sorption-enhanced steam reforming and hydro-processing were compared.
  • Both BHD from FAME and PFA could produce bio-hydrogenated diesel without using external hydrogen sources.
  • BHD from PFA exhibited higher emissions than that of BHD from FAME.


Corresponding author Biography

Chaiwat Prapainainar was born in Saraburi Province, Thailand in 1978. He received the B.Eng. and M.Eng. Degrees in chemical engineering from King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, in 2001 and 2003, respectively. He received the Ph.D. degree in chemical engineering and analytical science from The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom, in 2010. In 2005, he was appointed as a lecturer at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok. He has been an Associate Professor since 2020. He is the author and co-author of more than 30 articles. His research interests include polymeric membrane for fuel cell technology, techno-economic study of new liquid fuel production technology, deoxygenation technology for green diesel production, and microscale reactor. He is a reviewer for more than ten academic journals. Dr. Prapainainar is a member of the Thai Institute of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry and was a recipient of The Hutchison Medal from IChemE, United Kingdom, in 2018/19.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Methane reforming with sulfur dioxide on Cr2O3 /y-Al2O3.

Author(s): Sabrina Noemí Hernández Guiance, Ignacio Daniel Coria, Isabel María Irurzun.

Country: Argentina.

Abstract

In this work we present a study on the methane oxidation reaction on Cr2O3 in the presence of sulfur dioxide using both infrared spectroscopy and simulations based on the density functional theory. The purpose of the work is to know the reasons why sulfur dioxide decreases the activation energy of the methane oxidation reaction. We found that sulfur dioxide promotes oxygen dissociation through the formation of sulfite species. Dissociated oxygen favors the dehydrogenation of methane, the formation of methoxy species, formaldehyde, dioxymethylene, and methanol.

Keywords

methane reforming, methanol, formaldehyde.

Highlights
  • The SO 2 decreases the activation energy of the CH 4 oxidation on Cr 2 O 3 /γ − Al 2 O 3 .
  • The SO 2 promotes the dissociation of adsorbed oxygen and in the dehydrogenation of methane
  • Methane oxidation on Cr 2 O 3 occurs with the formation of methanol, formaldehyde, and methoxy species.
Corresponding author Biography

Isabel M Irurzun is Professor of the Physics Department in the Faculty of Science, University of La Plata, Argentina. She is also a researcher of the Argentinean Science Research Council. She is author of more than 60 scientific publications in Condensed Matter, Catalysis, Statistical Physics, Complex Systems and Nonlinear Phenomena.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Thermodynamic study of a membraneless electrochemical process for the hydrogen and oxygen high-pressure generation .

Author(s): Andrii Shevchenko, Nguyen Tien Khiem, Bui Dinh Tri, Anatolii Kotenko.

Country: Viet Nam.

Abstract

The report addresses the thermodynamic analysis of the electrochemical process of hydrogen and oxygen high-pressure generation. This process can improve the energy efficiency of the membraneless electrolysis method.

The method is based on the use of a gas-absorbing electrode with a highly developed contact surface between the electrode and electrolyte. The electrochemical activity of the gas-absorbing electrode material (Fe(g)) is higher than that of platinum-coated electrodes and exceeds them in the efficiency of the electrolysis process. The electricity consumption required for the production of hydrogen and oxygen is in the range of 3.95 kWh/m3 to 4.16 kWh/m.3 It should also be noted that this process is cyclic, consisting of a half-cycle of hydrogen evolution and a half-cycle of oxygen evolution. The distribution of the energy consumption by half-cycles is 0.88 kW h / m3 per H2 ↑; 3.28 kW h / m3 on O2 ↑ respectively. The material of the gas-absorbing electrode (Fe (g)) chemically binds the oxygen when it acts as the anode, while the hydrogen is evolved at the cathode (Ni). The reverse of the polarity allows the hydrogen to be chemically bound by the cathode material (Fe (g)) and the oxygen gas to be evolved at the anode (Ni). The cyclic operation of the electrochemical cell makes it possible to stop the usage of proton-exchange membranes, which results in a significant increase in the operating pressure of the generated gases (up to P = 20.0 MPa). This pressure is achieved not because of the use of compressor equipment, but due to the isochoric process of electrochemical production of high-pressure hydrogen and oxygen. The above advantages contribute to the successful implementation of an innovative electrolyzer as an element of a buffer storage system for a secondary energy carrier (hydrogen) in energy technology complexes using alternative energy sources.

Keywords

electrolyzer, anode, cathode, hydrogen, oxygen, high-pressure, alternative energy sources.

Highlights
  1. Decreasing power consumption per a unit of the generated product. The specific consumption of electric power by the electrolyzer experimental samples is in the limits from 3.95 to 4.16kW.h/m 3 .
  2. During the processes, gas pressure can be limited only by solidity of constructional elements and the threshold of gas solubility in electrolyte. In practice, the actual pressure level is within 20.0MPa.
  3. Absence of the separation membranes results in high reliability and safety of electrolyzer operation.
  4. Rare earth metals and platinum metals are not used in the electrochemical high pressure electrolyzer so, it is inexpensive.
  5. Purity of the hydrogen generated under electrochemical reaction is 99.98%, and oxygen is 99.95 %..


Corresponding author Biography

Andrii Shevchenko has received his engineering degree in aerospace thermal physics from the National Aerospace University "KhAI" Kharkiv, Ukraine, in 1998. Since 2003 he has been working as a Principal Engineer of the Department of Hydrogen Energy, A.Pidgorny Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkiv. During this time, he took part in and supervised the implementation of eight international grants, where he was engaged in theoretical and practical research to improve energy storage methods based on hydrogen technologies using renewable energy sources. Andrii Shevchenko is the author and co-author of 1 monograph, 22 peer-reviewed scientific publications, 12 patents on the subject of work, and 45 reports of international conferences.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Study of CZTSSe based solar cells with different ETMs by SCAPS.

Author(s): Lhoussayne Et-taya ,Touria Ouslimane,Abdellah Benami.

Country: Morocco.

Abstract

Third-generation thin-film solar cells based on CZTSSe are highly promising because of their excellent optoelectrical properties, earth-abundant, and non-toxicity of its constituent elements. In this work, the performance of CZTSSe based solar cells with TiO2, CdS, and ZnSe as electron transporting materials (ETMs) was numerically investigated using the Solar Cell capacitance Simulator (SCAPS). The effect of the active layer’s thickness and electron affinity, different buffer layers and the contour plot of the operating temperature versus thickness of the CdS buffer layer were studied. The results show that the optimum power conversion efficiency for CdS, TiO2 and ZnSe, as the ETMs, is 23.16%, 23.13%, and 22.42%, respectively.

Keywords

CZTSSe, Third-generation thin-film, SCAPS, efficiency, ETMs.

Highlights
  • The CZTSSe solar cell was simulated using the SCAPS-1D program.
  • Effect of different ETM such as CdS, TiO2, and ZnSe was investigated.
  • It was found that TiO2 may be an alternative for low-cost, high-efficiency, and Cd-free CZTSSe Solar cells, with the efficiency of 23.13%.


Corresponding author Biography

ET-TAYA Lhoussayne earned his master’s degree in Materials Physics and Modeling from Moulay Ismail University in 2013, and he has been a Ph.D. student at OTEA team at the Faculty of Sciences and Technics-Errachidia since 2018. His thesis is about numerically studying of the performances of third-generation solar cells.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Capacitive deionization of salt water using thin stainless steel and graphite collectors in the FdCDI process .

Author(s): C.-H. Wu, P.-A. Chen, P.-C. Chang, H. Paul Wang.

Country: Taiwan.

Abstract

While the global water resource is very limited, the rapid population growth and urbanization have caused an added demand for fresh water. The developing capacitive deionization (CDI) method has gained extensive attention mainly due to its high energy-efficiency, environmental friendly, and low cost for desalination. To improve the benefits of flow-electrode CDI (FCDI) and the simplicity of the traditional flow-by CDI methods, a novel fluidized CDI (FdCDI) has been developed. In this work, a feasible study for FdCDI of saltwater using the thin stainless steel (SS) as the current collectors was investigated. The less resistance graphite current collectors for the FdCDI electrodes without activated carbon (AC) coating have a greater salt adsorption capacity than that of the SS ones. Moreover, the graphite current collectors possess a nearly ideal capacitor behavior and allow the ions in the solution to be more efficiently electrosorbed by the electric double layer of flow electrodes. Nevertheless, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves of the AC-coated SS and graphite electrodes have a near rectangle shape for the charge/discharge process, which can be regarded as supercapacitors at a scan rate of 5-25 mV/s. The shape of the curve is similar, indicating that less resistance causes the ions to transport fast in the microporous electrodes. The thin SS become a better current collector simply due to the fact of the more feed rates (by +85%) can be achieved for FdCDI.

Keywords

Capacitive deionization, stainless steel, graphite, fluidized capacitive deionization.

Highlights
  •  The less resistance graphite current collectors for the FdCDI electrodes without activated carbon (AC) coating have a greater salt adsorption capacity than that of the SS ones. 
  • The cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves of the AC-coated SS and graphite electrodes have a near rectangle shape for the charge/discharge process, which can be regarded as supercapacitors at a scan rate of 5-25 mV/s.
  • The thin SS become a better current collector simply due to the fact of the more feed rates (by +85%) can be achieved for FdCDI..


Corresponding author Biography

H. Paul Wang: Professor at the Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.

Education

• 09/1983-06/1988 Ph.D. Chemical (Fuels) Engineering University of Utah, USA

• 09/1981-06/1983 M.S. Physical Chemistry University of Pittsburgh, USA

• 09/1979-06/1981 M.S. Applied Chemistry National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan

• 09/1972-06/1976 B.S. Chemistry National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan

Research Focuses

• Smart Recycling • Molecular Environment Science • Green Energy • Advanced Materials

Journal Editor

• 2011-Present Director International Medical Geology Association

• 2011-Present Chief Editor Sustainable Environment Research

• 2006-Present Associate Editor Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology

• 2004-2006 Associate Editor Journal of Chinese Institute of Environmental Engineering

• 2003 Associate Editor Environmental Protection Monthly, Taiwan

• 1999-2002 Associate Editor Engineering Science & Technology Bulletin

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Electrokinetic Remediation of Arsenic in a Gold Tailing Studied by in situ EXAFS.

Author(s): C.Y. Peng, P.-A. Chen, P.-C. Chang, H. Paul Wang.

Country: Taiwan.

Abstract

The tailings of arsenic-containing gold ores have caused a serious environmental problem in the north of Taiwan. Electrokinetic remediation (EKR) is one of the feasible methods for in situ soil decontamination. Although EKR has been proven to be very feasible in laboratory- and bench-scale experiments and small-scale field tests, an understanding of the complex arsenic involved in the EKR is of great importance. Thus, the main objective of this work was to track the fate of arsenic in the gold tailing by in situ EXAFS spectroscopy. By XRD, it is clear that As2O3 is the main arsenic compound in the gold tailing. After EKR, the arsenic concentration near the anode is greater than that near the cathode in the arsenic-containing tailing. The first derivative feature of XANES spectra appeared at 11870 eV indicates the existence of As2O3 that is the main arsenic compound in the arsenic-containing gold tailing. Prolonging the EKR contact time to 90 min, the bond distances of As-O (1st shell) and As-As (2nd shell) are increased slightly, that is attributed to the perturbation by the electric field. Note that the dissolved H2AsO3- is accumulated near the anode. The amount of As2O3 (dissolved as H2AsO3-) in the tailing is increased significantly after EKR for 60 min. However, when the EKR time was prolonged to 90 minutes, the amount of H2AsO3- is decreased, suggesting the migration of arsenic to the anode and eventually accumulated near the anode. This work illustrates the usefulness of EXAFS and XANES for revealing speciation of arsenic embedded in the complex matrix of a gold tailing in the EKR process.

Keywords

Arsenic, electrokinetic remediation, in situ EXAFS, XANES, gold tailin.

Highlights
  •  The first derivative feature of XANES spectra appeared at 11870 eV indicates the existence of As2O3 that is the main arsenic compound in the arsenic-containing gold tailing. 
  • Prolonging the EKR contact time to 90 min, the bond distances of As-O (1st shell) and As-As (2nd shell) are increased slightly, that is attributed to the perturbation by the electric field. 
  • The amount of As2O3 (dissolved as H2AsO3-) in the tailing is increased significantly after EKR for 60 min.


Corresponding author Biography

H. Paul Wang: Professor at the Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.

Education

  • 09/1983-06/1988 Ph.D. Chemical (Fuels) Engineering University of Utah, USA
  • 09/1981-06/1983 M.S. Physical Chemistry University of Pittsburgh, USA
  • 09/1979-06/1981 M.S. Applied Chemistry National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan
  • 09/1972-06/1976 B.S. Chemistry National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan


Research Focuses

  • Smart Recycling
  • Molecular Environment Science
  • Green Energy
  • Advanced Materials


Journal Editor

  • 2011-Present Director International Medical Geology Association
  • 2011-Present Chief Editor Sustainable Environment Research
  • 2006-Present Associate Editor Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology
  • 2004-2006 Associate Editor Journal of Chinese Institute of Environmental Engineering
  • 2003 Associate Editor Environmental Protection Monthly, Taiwan
  • 1999-2002 Associate Editor Engineering Science & Technology Bulletin


CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: DESCRIPTION OF COLOMBIAN ELECTRICITY PRICING DERIVATIVES.

Author(s): Sellamuthu Prabakaran.

Country: Colombia.

Abstract

Electricity markets are becoming a popular field of research amongst academics because of the lack of appropriate models for describing electricity price behavior and pricing derivatives instruments. Models for price dynamics must consider seasonality and spiky behavior of jumps which seem hard to model by standard jump process. Without good models for electricity price dynamics, it is difficult to think about good models for futures, forward, swaps, and option pricing. In this paper, we attempt to introduce an algorithm for pricing derivatives to intuition from the Colombian electricity market. The main ambition of this study is fourfold: 1) First we begin our approach through to simple stochastic models for electricity pricing. 2) Next, we derive analytical formulas for the prices of electricity derivatives with different derivatives tools. 3) Then we extent short of the model for price risk in the electricity spot market 4) Finally we construct the model estimation under the physical measures for the Colombian electricity market. And this paper ends with a conclusion.

Keywords

Electricity markets, Energy Derivative, Option, and Forward Contract.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Stability of d-dimensional Gravastars.

Author(s): Faisal Javed.

Country: Pakistan.

Abstract

In this paper, we are interested to explore stable configurations of d-dimensional gravastars constructed from the interior d-dimensional de Sitter and exterior d-dimensional black holes through cut and paste approach. We consider linearized radial perturbation preserving the original symmetries to explore their stability by using three different types of matter distributions. It turns out that the resulting frameworks represent unstable structures for barotropic, Chaplygin and phantomlike models for every considered choice of exterior geometries. However, matter contents with variable equations of state have remarkable role to maintain the stability of gravastars. We conclude that stable structures of gravastars are obtained only for generalized variable models with exterior d-dimensional black holes.

Keywords

Gravastars; Black holes; Equation of state; Stability.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Pending Registration

Article Title: Photocatalytic Reduction of CO2-to-C1 by Dual Photoelectrode Reactor.

Author(s): H.-Y. Chang, L.-W. Wei, H.P. Wang.

Country: Taiwan.

Abstract

Global warming has been proved to be caused by the excessive emissions of CO2 from the usage of fossil fuels. Therefore, promoting carbon mitigation strategies and energy transition are of increasing importance. Reduction of CO2 to C1 fuels by solar energy like artificial photosynthesis is thus environmentally attractive and close the carbon cycle. There are still major challenges such as low conversion efficiency and high recombination of electron-holes during photocatalytic reduction of CO2. We have developed novel perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) encapsulated within metal organic frameworks (MOFs) (PQD@MOF) composite for dual photoelectrodes to proceed the high-efficiency photocatalytic reduction of CO2. By the PQD@MOF under visible-light irradiation, about 500 μmol C1/mgCat/h were obtained. It is apparent that the novel PQD@MOF photocatalysts are chemically feasible for solar-driven CO2 reduction to C1 fuels.

Keywords

photocatalytic reduction of CO2, perovskite, metal organic frameworks, reactor design.

Highlights
  • Novel perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) encapsulated within metal organic frameworks (MOFs) (PQD@MOF) composites have beem developed for dual photoelectrodes to proceed the high-efficiency photocatalytic reduction of CO 2 .
  • By the PQD@MOF under visible-light irradiation, about 500 µmol C 1 /mgCat/h were obtained.
  • It is apparent that the novel PQD@MOF photocatalysts are chemically feasible for solar-driven CO 2 reduction to C 1 fuels.


Corresponding author Biography

H. Paul Wang is a Chair Professor of Environmental Engineering Department at National Cheng Kung University. He has extensive research and development expertise in nanotechnology, green energy, and incineration/gasification/pyrolysis engineering. His prior experiences include the development of a multi-faceted and comprehensive recycling of biomass and wastewater with Texaco Inc. in California, US. Additionally, he developed an engineering-feasible and cost-effective process for carbon capture and utilization through a collaborative project with scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In the recent years, his research interests have extended to developing new applications in solar-driven CO2 and H2O-to-H2O2 fuel cells, thin vapor chamber (via nano-capillary pump loop) for heat dissipation of photoelectric devices, and recycling of chlorofluorocarbon wastes to diamond. Currently, he is working to scale up the novel fluidized capacitive deionization process which enables repurpose of seawater to fresh water through efficient capturing lithium and desalination..

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: DEEP PETROLEUM BOREHOLE TRAJECTORY TRACKING ON THE BASIS OF OPTIMAL CONTROL METHODS.

Author(s): Valery Gulyayev, Sergii Glazunov, Nataliia Shlyun.

Country: Ukraine.

Abstract

The problems of optimal control of a trajectory construction for mechanical system motions and optimization of production process behavior represent the most advanced parts of the mathematic (nonlinear) programming theory. It consists of classical methods of differential and variational calculuses elaborated by L. Euler and J. Lagrange and advanced in works of R. Bellman, L. Pontryagin, and their disciples. In the implicit form, the optimization problems emerge in the petroleum engineering concerned with design and construction of deep curvilinear oil and gas boreholes. Now, drilling and completing the boreholes with complicated geometry, large lengths, and in heterogeneous geostructures with aims to improve their production while saving time and material expenses are becoming commonplace. Not rarely, they are accompanied by risks of emergency situations and failures. The pointed aggregate of factors associated with the geometry of a borehole trajectory connecting its initial and terminal ends, its tortuosity influencing on contact, friction, and resistance forces, as well as, requirements of its length and cost minimization, is the main stimulus prompting to the use of optimal control methods for the optimal tracking of the borehole trajectories.

In modern oil/gas producing industry, vertical, 2D and 3D directed, and multilateral (branched) boreholes are drilled. Their trajectories are designed depending on the petroleum deposit depth and structure, properties of mining rocks, their hardness, heterogeneity, fracturing anisotropy, permeability, and so on. Therefore, the borehole cost and its productivity are determined by the length, smoothness, and configuration of its trajectory. To enhance efficiency of a borehole and to reduce cost of its drivage, to enlarge rate and volume of the reservoir depletion, it is firstly proposed to use methods of optimal control for the best tracking of its trajectory.

The objective functionals chosen as integral curvature, length or cost of the borehole are considered. The techniques for the optimization problem solving are developed with the use of the continuous version of the step-by-step antigradient projection on the hyperplanes of linearized constraints.

Some examples are considered for a borehole with fixed and shifting boundary positions under conditions of minimizing its total curvature and length. It is shown that it is possible to improve the smoothness of the borehole trajectory using the outlined approach, and in so doing, reduce the friction and resistance forces impeding the drill string motion.

Exclusive advantage of the proposed approach can be achieved as applied to optimization of 3D and multilateral (branching) borehole trajectories in complex rocks. To state these problems, it is necessary to pose multipoint boundary value problems for ordinary differential equations and to solve multipoint problems of optimal control that are connected with additional (but soluble) difficulties. Statement and solution of these problems is a real art.

Keywords

Deep boreholes, curvilinear trajectories, branched trajectories, optimal control.

Highlights
  • The problem of optimal control of deep oil and gas borehole trajectory tracking is firstly stated.
  •  New continuous and discrete models of 2D, 3D, and multilateral (branched) boreholes are elaborated with the use of methods of optimal control and nonlinear programming.
  • The target functions, minimizing tortuosity, length, and cost of the boreholes in anisotropic rock media, are considered.


Corresponding author Biography

Professor Valery Gulyayev is currently the Head of the Department of mathematics of the National Transport University, Ukraine. His scientific interests are associated with the problems of computer simulation of emergency situations accompanying the processes of deep oil and gas boreholes drilling.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Pending Registration

Article Title: COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF X-IMPLANTED h-BN SHEET: X=( Li, Be, Al, C, Si).

Author(s): Qurat ul Ain Asif, Akhtar Hussain, Azeem Nabi, Muhammad Tayyab, Hafiz Muhammad Rafique,.

Country: Pakistan.

Abstract

The structural and electronic properties of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) sheet implanted with X atoms (X=Li, Be, Al, C and Si) have been investigated to tune its band-gap to amend its insulating behaviour towards semi-conducting material employing density functional theory (DFT). It has been observed that on replacing nitrogen or boron (N/B) atom with impurity atom(s), several impurity levels appear in band gap dividing big gap into small energy gaps, albeit to different extent, depending upon the dopant element and subsitutional site. The lowest value falls as low as 2.27 eV as compared to 4.63 eV of pristine h-BN in addition to appearance of states at Fermi level. Additionally; geometrical, interaction of foreign elements with the host material and stability issues are discussed. These results are affable for its usage in transistor-based devices and to explore its new applications in high-power electronic and optoelectronic devices.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Pending Registration

Article Title: In situ FTIR studies for photocatalytic reduction of CO2 by TiO2 nanotubes.

Author(s): H.-H. Chang, H.-Y. Chang, H.P. Wang.

Country: Taiwan.

Abstract

A better understanding of CO2 adsorption on the one-dimensional TiO2 nanotube (TiNT) is of great importance for improving its photocatalytic reduction ability. In this work, adsorption and photocatalytic reduction of CO2 on the TiNT was studied by in situ FTIR. The IR absorbance features at 1303 and 1393 cm-1 are associated with carbonate species, e.g., bidentate carbonate on the TiNT. Complete desorption of CO2 from the TiNTs may occur at T>418 K. The in situ FTIR studies indicate bidentate carbonate and carboxylate species on the TiNTs, which may conduct the surface reactions enhanced by UV/Vis light to yield of low carbon fuels or chemicals.

Keywords

In situ FTIR, photocatalytic reduction of CO2, TiO2 nanotubes.

Highlights
  •  Adsorption and photocatalytic reduction of CO 2 on the TiNT was studied by in situ FTIR.
  • Complete desorption of CO 2 from the TiNTs may occur at T>418 K. 
  • The bidentate carbonate and carboxylate species on the TiNTs indicated by in situ FTIR studies may conduct surface reactions enhanced by UV/Vis light to yield of low carbon fuels or chemicals.


Corresponding author Biography

H. Paul Wang is a Chair Professor of Environmental Engineering Department at National Cheng Kung University. He has extensive research and development expertise in nanotechnology, green energy, and incineration/gasification/pyrolysis engineering. His prior experiences include the development of a multi-faceted and comprehensive recycling of biomass and wastewater with Texaco Inc. in California, US. Additionally, he developed an engineering-feasible and cost-effective process for carbon capture and utilization through a collaborative project with scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In the recent years, his research interests have extended to developing new applications in solar-driven CO2 and H2O-to-H2O2 fuel cells, thin vapor chamber (via nano-capillary pump loop) for heat dissipation of photoelectric devices, and recycling of chlorofluorocarbon wastes to diamond. Currently, he is working to scale up the novel fluidized capacitive deionization process which enables repurpose of seawater to fresh water through efficient capturing lithium and desalination..

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Enhanced extraction of PAHs from fly ashes with variable dielectric-constant supercritical fluids.

Author(s): K.-A. Hsueh, Y.-C. Tsai , T.-E. Wu, I-H. Chen, Y.-J. Tuan, H.-P. Wang.

Country: Taiwan.

Abstract

There is a lack of quality data on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in incineration fly ashes primarily due to the conventional Soxhlet extraction fails by the recovery of PAHs during the process. To better understand the hindered PAH finger-print patterns in the fly ashes, extractions with supercritical fluids (SCFs) such as dichloromethane (SDCM) (Tc=333 K and Pc=248 bar), water (SCW) (Tc=673 K and Pc=240 bar), and CO2 (SCCO2) (Tc=333 K and Pc=248 bar) were studied. By adjusting the dielectric constant (ε) of the supercritical fluids and mixtures, moderate-to-low polarity PAHs in the fly ashes can be extracted. Virtually most of PAHs hindered in fly ashes can be quantitatively extracted with the supercritical fluids at a wide range of ε. Moreover, the adjustable-ε SCF method developed in this work may have promising applications in the analysis of deuterated-PAHs embedded in interplanetary dusts.

Keywords

PAHs, supercritical dichloromethane, supercritical water, supercritical fluids.

Highlights
  • By adjusting the dielectric constant (ε) of the supercritical fluids and mixtures, moderate-to-low polarity PAHs in the fly ashes can be extracted.
  • The adjustable-ε SCF method developed in this work may have promising applications in the analysis of deuterated-PAHs embedded in interplanetary dusts.


Corresponding author Biography

H. Paul Wang is a Chair Professor of Environmental Engineering Department at National Cheng Kung University. He has extensive research and development expertise in nanotechnology, green energy, and incineration/gasification/pyrolysis engineering. His prior experiences include the development of a multi-faceted and comprehensive recycling of biomass and wastewater with Texaco Inc. in California, US. Additionally, he developed an engineering-feasible and cost-effective process for carbon capture and utilization through a collaborative project with scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In the recent years, his research interests have extended to developing new applications in solar-driven CO2 and H2O-to-H2O2 fuel cells, thin vapor chamber (via nano-capillary pump loop) for heat dissipation of photoelectric devices, and recycling of chlorofluorocarbon wastes to diamond. Currently, he is working to scale up the novel fluidized capacitive deionization process which enables repurpose of seawater to fresh water through efficient capturing lithium and desalination..

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: High-temperature desulfurization by ZnO/Raney CuO absorbents.

Author(s): T.-C. Wang, T.-E. Wu, Y.-C. Tsai, Y.-J. Tuan, and H. Paul Wang.

Country: Taiwan.

Abstract

Desulfurization of syngas containing H2S at high temperatures for integrated gasification combined cycle is gaining momentum as a commercially viable source of clean energy. Thus, a feasibility study for hot-gas (1% H2S) desulfurization by ZnO on skeletal Raney CuO (ZnO/R-CuO) absorbent was carried out. The degree of the hot-gas desulfurization by ZnO/R-CuO was 90.0% at 873 K and decrease to 46.5% as the temperature raised to 1073 K. The rate constant (k) for the desulfurization by ZnO/R-CuO at 873 K was 8.35×104 cm3/min g with the activation energy (Ea) of 114.8 kJ/mol. Speciation of zinc and CuO in the ZnO/R-CuO for the hot-gas desulfurization was also studied by synchrotron X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Mainly Zn(II) and Cu(II) were found in the ZnO/R-CuO. By EXAFS, in the 2nd shells, a decrease of Cu-Cu bond distance in ZnO/R-CuO was observed during desulfurization. However, an increase in Zn-Zn bond distance was observed after desulfurization. It is apparent that hot-gas desulfurization by ZnO/Raney CuO absorbent is chemical feasible.

Keywords

Raney CuO, ZnO, hot-gas desulfurization, EXAFS.

Highlights
  • A feasibility study for hot-gas (1% H2S) desulfurization by ZnO on skeletal Raney CuO (ZnO/R-CuO) absorbent was carried out.
  • Speciation of zinc and CuO in the ZnO/R-CuO for the hot-gas desulfurization was studied by synchrotron X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy.  Mainly Zn(II) and Cu(II) were found in the ZnO/R-CuO. By

EXAFS, in the 2nd shells, a decrease of Cu-Cu bond distance in ZnO/R-CuO was observed during desulfurization.

  • An increase in Zn-Zn bond distance was observed after desulfurization. It is apparent that hot-gas desulfurization by ZnO/Raney CuO absorbent is chemically feasible.


Corresponding author Biography

H. Paul Wang is a Chair Professor of Environmental Engineering Department at National Cheng Kung University. He has extensive research and development expertise in nanotechnology, green energy, and incineration/gasification/pyrolysis engineering. His prior experiences include the development of a multi-faceted and comprehensive recycling of biomass and wastewater with Texaco Inc. in California, US. Additionally, he developed an engineering-feasible and cost-effective process for carbon capture and utilization through a collaborative project with scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In the recent years, his research interests have extended to developing new applications in solar-driven CO2 and H2O-to-H2O2 fuel cells, thin vapor chamber (via nano-capillary pump loop) for heat dissipation of photoelectric devices, and recycling of chlorofluorocarbon wastes to diamond. Currently, he is working to scale up the novel fluidized capacitive deionization process which enables repurpose of seawater to fresh water through efficient capturing lithium and desalination..

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Identification of wind energy deployment determinants: Fuzzy cognitive map-based method.

Author(s): Sara Ghaboulian Zare, M. Alipour, R. Parsaei Tabar, Mehdi Hafezi.

Country: Australia.

Abstract

Wind energy is undoubtedly an essential generation source required to achieve a transformative renewable energy supply portfolio. However, long-term sustainable wind energy deployment faces various challenges due to various complex interconnected impediment factors. These inherent endogenous and exogenous uncertainties preclude obtaining an accurate future trend, which complicates the design of a good policy. This study seeks to critically identify all the involved parameters that contribute to the future of wind energy in Iran. In doing so, the research employs Fuzzy Cognitive Maps to analyse the relationship and role of each determined element within the system. The research outcome revealed 26 influential factors shaping the dynamics of the system in six main categories (PESTEL). The findings demonstrated that Iran’s wind sector is predominated by economic and political drivers with strong interconnections. Five key concepts, including two economic, one legal, and two political, were ascertained that contribute to the system’s stability.

Keywords

Wind Energy; Fuzzy Cognitive Map; Renewable Energies.

Highlights
  • Evaluation of the association between parameters with wind energy development in Iran based on the FCM method.
  • Identification of six main influential categories in shaping wind sector expansion.
  • Economic and political concepts primarily drive the expansion of the wind sector in Iran.
  • Sanctions as the most important external factor and government support as the most effective internal factor.


Corresponding author Biography

Sara Ghaboulian Zare has received her master in Industrial Engineering (Macro systems modelling) in 2018 from Sadjad University of Technology (Mashhad, Iran). After her graduation, she has worked as a scientific researcher in the field of renewable energy systems. Her research interests include Sustainable Energy Systems Analysis, Computer Simulation and Modelling, Agent-based Modelling, Scenario Planning, Decision Making Techniques, and Scheduling.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to C1 fuels by (Ni/ZnO)@C nanoreactors.

Author(s): M.-L. Liu, L.-W. Wei, H.-P. Wang.

Country: Taiwan.

Abstract

The (Ni/ZnO)@C core-shell nanoparticles were prepared by carbonization of Ni2+- and Zn2+-cyclodextrin complexes at 723 K for 2 h. ZnO and Ni encapsulated in carbon-shell were etched partially to form the (Ni/ZnO)@C yolk-shell nanoreactors for photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to C1 fuels. By XRD, it is clear that ZnO is the main zinc crystallite in the nanoreactors, and its nanoparticle size is between 10-20 nm. The TEM images of the nanoreactors indicate that Ni and ZnO having the nanosizes of 5-30 nm are capsulated in the porous carbon-shell that allows molecules to diffuse in and out for photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to C1 fuels. It is worth noting that ZnO in the (Ni/ZnO)@C yolk-shell nanoreactor plays the main photoactive role in photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. However, excess Ni encapsulated in carbon-shell leads to a de-activity in photocatalytic degradation of MB and reduction of CO2. By in situ FTIR spectroscopy, the disappearance of CO2 is at the expense of formation of species containing CH and carbonyl groups, possibly related to yields of C1 species such as HCOOH.

Keywords

CO2 reduction, photocatalysis, nanoreactors, yolk-shell, methanol.

Highlights
  •  Ni encapsulated in carbon-shell leads to a de-activity in photocatalytic degradation of MB and reduction of CO2 .
  • By   in situ   FTIR spectroscopy, the disappearance of CO2   is at the expense of the formation of species containing CH and carbonyl groups, possibly related to yields of C1   species such as HCOOH.


Corresponding author Biography

H. Paul Wang is a Chair Professor of Environmental Engineering Department at National Cheng Kung University. He has extensive research and development expertise in nanotechnology, green energy, and incineration/gasification/pyrolysis engineering. His prior experiences include the development of a multi-faceted and comprehensive recycling of biomass and wastewater with Texaco Inc. in California, US. Additionally, he developed an engineering-feasible and cost-effective process for carbon capture and utilization through a collaborative project with scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In the recent years, his research interests have extended to developing new applications in solar-driven CO2 and H2O-to-H2O2 fuel cells, thin vapor chamber (via nano-capillary pump loop) for heat dissipation of photoelectric devices, and recycling of chlorofluorocarbon wastes to diamond. Currently, he is working to scale up the novel fluidized capacitive deionization process which enables repurpose of seawater to fresh water through efficient capturing lithium and desalination.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Research on Mud Loss Prevention and Control for Deep Wells with Complex Pressure System in Mingebrak Oilfield, Uzbekistan.

Author(s): Wanjun Li, Qi Liu, Huifeng Liu, Jun Yan, Yong Wang, Shujiu Feng, He Ba and Yue Xiao.

Country: China.

Abstract

Reservoirs at Mingebrak Basin in Uzbekistan are characterized by big burial depth (5200- 6500m), high temperature (150-200℃), high pressure (pressure coefficient 2.08-2.41), high salt content (220000mg/l), and high H2S content (5~6%) in the formation fluid. The Musgothic formation is especially complex because it contains different pressure systems. Leakage and blowout are easy to occur during well drilling and the average drilling period is 732 days. The data of well drilling history have been analyzed and the causes of the long drilling period have been detected. The results showed that the drilling problems in the Musgothic formation was the main cause of the non-drilling time because leakage and overflow occurred frequently and time was consumed in dealing with leakage and overflow. Three methods have been taken to conquer the drilling problems: finding out the setting positions and improving the wellbore structure; selecting the organic salt drilling fluid and optimizing the formula of it through experiments; developing different lost circulation materials to bridge different types of leakage.

Leakage prevention and control technologies have been worked out through analysis and experiments. Firstly, the mudstone at the top of Musgothic and the high-pressure formation at bottom of Musgothic were taken as setting positions respectively and the wellbore structure was improved from three-hole structure to four-hole or five-hole structure. Secondly, an organic salt drilling fluid formula with temperature resistance of 180℃, salt contamination resistance of 30%NaCl and 1% gypsum, and 93.48% recycle rate was developed. Thirdly, three types of loss control materials: return loss control materials, fracture loss control materials, and permeable leakage control materials were developed to deal with different types of formation leakage. The three methods, five-hole wellbore structure, high temperature organic salt drilling fluid and 840 m3 loss control materials have been uccessfully used in an exploration well M15 in Mingebrak Oilfield, and the drilling period was only 390 days, only about a half of the average drilling period in this area. The study of the mud loss prevention and control technologies of this paper is significant for reducing the drilling period in Mingebrak Oilfield, Uzbekistan. Their successful application in well M15 set a good example for safe and fast drilling of deep wells in this oilfield and the technologies will be popularized for application in other wells of this area. 

Keywords

HT/HP; High Salt; High H2S; Deep Well; Mud Losses.

Highlights
  • Reservoirs at Mingebrak Basin in Uzbekistan are characterized by big burial depth (5200-6500m), high temperature (150-200℃), high pressure (pressure coefficient 2.08-2.41), high salt content (220000mg/l), and high H2S content (5~6%) in the formation fluid.
  • The lack of understanding of formation pressure system in Mingebrake structure leads to the poor adaptability of well structure design and drilling fluid system, resulting in frequent leakage and overflow during drilling, which is one of the main reasons for the extension of drilling cycle.
  • The optimization of wellbore structure effectively reduces the drilling difficulty of different pressure systems in the process of complex deep well drilling, and reduces the risk of vicious blowout accident in the formation with complex pressure system of Musgotian stage.
  • Organic salt drilling fluid has the advantages of good inhibition, low solid content, strong anti-pollution ability and easy rheology control, which has gradually become the preferred drilling fluid formula in Mingebrak oilfield.
  • A variety of lost circulation agents are developed for different types of lost circulation mechanism, such as lost circulation, fracture and permeability, which effectively improve the adaptability of lost circulation in different formations and lithology of deep wells, and become an effective measure of lost circulation control.
  • The successful application of leakage prevention technology in complex deep wells solves the drilling problems such as leakage and overflow caused by complex drilling fluid pressure system in Mingebrake block, reduces well control risk and ensures the success rate of drilling..


Corresponding author Biography

Qi Liu was born in 1982, and graduated in Southwest Petroleum University of China in 2007, Master’s degree, the major is Petroleum Engineering. He has 14 years’ working experience as Petroleum Engineer, and he has been involved in more than a dozen oilfield Exploration and Development projects in China, Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. Enough Experiences in Wells Operations, about Drilling, WO and Well Services.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: In situ EXAFS studies of photoelectrocatalytic reduction of gold and lanthanum ions recycled from E-wastes .

Author(s): T.-E. Wu, Y.-C. Tsai, Y.-J. Tuan, and H. Paul Wang.

Country: Taiwan.

Abstract

Recycling of rare precious metals (RPMs) from E-waste by traditional methods such as pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy are generally high energy consumption, cost, and risk of environmental pollution. In this study, fluid capacitive deionization (FdCDI) process was used to concentrate the RPMs from a wastewater. The solar-driven photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) reduction of RPM ions (such as Au3+ and La3+) to metals was investigated. Electrons jumped to an excited state by solar energy can be transferred to photocathode through the external circuit to generate electricity in the PEC-I. In the solar-driven PEC-II on the photoanode, the photo-generated electrons can cause the reduction of RPM ions to metals. The speciation of gold and lanthanum during the FdCDI processes was determined by X-ray absorption near structure (XANES) spectroscopy for a better understanding of their electronic structure and oxidation states during photoelectrocatalysis, their synchrotron extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra were also determined for an improvement of the photoelectrocatalysts.

Keywords

photoelectrolysis, FdCDI, RPMs, XANES, EXAFS.

Highlights
  • The solar-driven photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) reduction of rare precious metals ions to metals was investigated.
  • Electrons jumped to an excited state by solar energy can be transferred to photocathode through the external circuit to generate electricity in the PEC-I. In the solar-driven PEC-II on the photoanode, the photo-generated electrons can cause the reduction of RPM ions to metals.


Corresponding author Biography

H. Paul Wang is a Chair Professor of Environmental Engineering Department at National Cheng Kung University. He has extensive research and development expertise in nanotechnology, green energy, and incineration/gasification/pyrolysis engineering. His prior experiences include the development of a multi-faceted and comprehensive recycling of biomass and wastewater with Texaco Inc. in California, US. Additionally, he developed an engineering-feasible and cost-effective process for carbon capture and utilization through a collaborative project with scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In the recent years, his research interests have extended to developing new applications in solar-driven CO2 and H2O-to-H2O2 fuel cells, thin vapor chamber (via nano-capillary pump loop) for heat dissipation of photoelectric devices, and recycling of chlorofluorocarbon wastes to diamond. Currently, he is working to scale up the novel fluidized capacitive deionization process which enables repurpose of seawater to fresh water through efficient capturing lithium and desalination.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Optical-Electronic Matrix System for the monitoring of nocturnal migration of birds.

Author(s): Alexandra Sinelschikova, Mikhael Vorotkov, ,Victor Bulyuk.

Country: Russia.

Abstract

This paper is dedicated to a new technique for advances in the study of the main parameters of flight and monitoring of nocturnal migration of birds. The Electronic-Optical Matrix System allows us to detect and record aerial targets in the night sky of a size greater than 5 cm and at an altitude of 100 to 1000 meters a.g.l. The principle design features are:- (1) An optical device for receiving images of flying targets on three high-sensitivity CCD matrices when illuminated by infrared light from searchlight beams and (2) Instantaneous parallactic computation enabling the distance from device to target to be accurately measured, and sequential images of each target to be recorded to computer. The device has been tested on song birds during seasonal nocturnal migration and provides accurate image details of important target flight parameters including: altitude, linear size (wing span and body length), direction of flight – track, orientation of the body axis – heading, ground and air speed, wing-beat frequency, number of wing-beats in each series of beats, duration of the pause between cycles of wing-beats, and type of flight trajectory. Special attention was given to one of the major difficulties in research of bird migration – the potential for the identification of individual species of birds flying in the night sky by combination of the recorded flight parameters. There are also the potential practical applications for aviation bird-strike at night as well as the remote monitoring of insects, bats and other targets of natural and artificial origin.

Keywords

electronic-optical device, monitoring, nocturnal migration, bird.

Highlights
  • The Optical-Electronic device allows us to detect and record aerial targets in the night sky of a size > 5 cm and at an altitude of 100 to 1000 meters a.g.l.
  •  The images of flying birds are captured on high-sensitivity CCD matrices when illuminated by infrared light from searchlights.
  • The device provides accurate details of 10 flight parameters of birds.
  • Identification of particular bird species migrating at night is possible by the combination of the recorded flight parameters.


Corresponding author Biography

Alexandra Sinelschikova is a third-year PostDoc research fellow at St-Petersburg University (Russia). Her PhD thesis was dedicated to the nocturnal migration of birds in the Baltic region. Her interests are in the field of climate and environmental changes and their influence on behavior and survival rate of animals. She is an author of more than ten research articles on bird migration. Her recent research project is Agent-based Modeling of migratory flows of birds.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to methanol by Cu2O/TiO2 heterojunctions.

Author(s): S.-P. Cheng, L.-W. Wei, H.-P. Wang.

Country: Taiwan.

Abstract

Conversion of CO2 to low-carbon fuels using solar energy is considered an economically attractive and environmental friend route. The development of novel catalysts and the use of solar energy via photocatalysis is the key to achieve the goal of chemically reducing CO2 under mild conditions. Thus, in this study, the novel Cu2O/TiO2 heterojunctions were used for CO2-to-low-carbon fuels. The p-n heterojunction is able to enhance the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. By UV-vis diffuse reflection absorption spectroscopy, it is clear that Cu2O coupled with TiO2 causes a red-shift to the visible light range. Under a 6-h UV-vis irradiation, 12.4-70.6 µmol methanol/g-catalyst can be generated by the Cu2O/TiO2 heterojunctions. However, excess Cu2O in the Cu2O/TiO2 heterojunctions may cause less absorption of UV-vis light and decrease the excited electrons from TiO2, which may obstruct the photoactivity for reduction of CO2.

Keywords

photocatalysis, CO2, Cu2O, TiO2, p-n heterojunction, methanol.

Highlights
  • The new Cu2O/TiO2 photocatalysts forms a heterojunction causing a red-shift to the visible light region.
  • The Cu2O/TiO2 heterojunctions can improve separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and enhance photocatalytic efficiency.
  • After a 6-h photocatalytic reduction of CO2 by the Cu2O/TiO2 heterojunction, 9-13 and 12-70 µmol/g-catalyst of methanol can be yielded under visible and UV-vis irradiation, respectively.


Corresponding author Biography

H. Paul Wang is a Chair Professor of Environmental Engineering Department at National Cheng Kung University. He has extensive research and development expertise in nanotechnology, green energy, and incineration/gasification/pyrolysis engineering. His prior experiences include the development of a multi-faceted and comprehensive recycling of biomass and wastewater with Texaco Inc. in California, US. Additionally, he developed an engineering-feasible and cost-effective process for carbon capture and utilization through a collaborative project with scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In the recent years, his research interests have extended to developing new applications in solar-driven CO2 and H2O-to-H2O2 fuel cells, thin vapor chamber (via nano-capillary pump loop) for heat dissipation of photoelectric devices, and recycling of chlorofluorocarbon wastes to diamond. Currently, he is working to scale up the novel fluidized capacitive deionization process which enables repurpose of seawater to fresh water through efficient capturing lithium and desalination..

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Examination of Nuclear and Renewables Potential in Malaysia.

Author(s): Pei Jia Pok, Man-Sung Yim.

Country: Korea.

Abstract

Malaysia relies heavily on fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas as its main source for electricity generation. Decades of exploitation and usage of these materials had not only caused contamination and depletion but also contributed to the large amount of carbon dioxide emission in the country. In 2015, Malaysia has signed the Paris Agreement and vowed to achieve the reduction of carbon dioxide emission by 45% per GDP to the level of 2005 by 2030. Prior to the Fukushima accident that happened in 2011, Malaysia has had plan to own a 2GW nuclear power plant by 2030. However, this plan was then delayed and now cancelled after the Fukushima accident. The importance of this research is to examine the changes in the environment and economy of Malaysia by adding nuclear power and renewables into its energy mix. Carbon dioxide emission trend will be determined and an economic analysis will be conducted. This research intends to draw a best-fit scenario for Malaysia to have a new energy mix that can achieve in the 45% carbon dioxide reduction. This research will be helpful for the Malaysia government as a reference to plan for its future energy production system.

Highlights
  • Malaysia can achieve 45% per GDP to the level of 2005 by 2030.
  • Malaysia should slowly reduce the use of coal and natural gas for energy production.
  • The inclusion of both nuclear energy and renewable energy into the electricity mix is the best fit-scenario for Malaysia’s future energy production.


Corresponding author Biography

Prof. Man-Sung Yim is Professor of the Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, and Director of Nuclear Nonproliferation Education and Research Center (NEREC) at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST). His work of interest includes nuclear-renewable hybrid system, nuclear waste management, nuclear nonproliferation and nuclear fuel cycle.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Low-Cost DSSCs using FeNi3@C counter electrodes.

Author(s): C.-C. Chen, Y.-F. Liou, L.-W. Wei, H. Paul Wang.

Country: Taiwan.

Abstract

To reduce the cost of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), noble metal platinum (Pt) on the counter-electrode has been replaced with relatively cheap metals, i.e., photo-activity-designable bimetal core-shell nanoparticles. In present work, nickel and iron encapsulated within carbon-shell (FeNi3@C) nanoparticles were prepared by carbonization of Ni2+ and Fe3+-β-cyclodextrin at 673 K for the DSSC counter-electrode. By component fitted X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, metallic nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe (73%) and Fe3O4 (27%)) are observed in the FeNi3@C. The FeNi3@C nanoparticles are deposited on a conductivity glass recovered from thin film transistor (TFT) liquid crystal display wastes for the counter-electrode of a DSSC. The DSSC having the FeNi3@C nanoparticles coated counter-electrode has the conversion efficiencies of 3.1%. In addition, the cost of the DSSC using the reccycled conducing glass and cheaper nanostructured FeNi3@C electrode can be reduced by at least 38%.

Keywords

Dye-sensitized solar cells, FeNi3@C, DSSC counter-electrode.

Highlights
  • A very simple for preparation of cheap FeNi3@C nanoparticles for DSSC counter-electrodes is developed.
  •  The conducing glass recovered from TFT-LCD wastes can be used as DSSC electrodes.
  • The DSSC using the nano FeNi3@C counter-electrode has a higher efficiency that the expense Pt one.
  • By using the recovered conducing glass and cheaper nano FeNi3@C electrode materials, the DSSC cost can be reduced by at least 38%.


Corresponding author Biography

H. Paul Wang is a Chair Professor of Environmental Engineering Department at National Cheng Kung University. He has extensive research and development expertise in nanotechnology, green energy, and incineration/gasification/pyrolysis engineering. His prior experiences include the development of a multi-faceted and comprehensive recycling of biomass and wastewater with Texaco Inc. in California, US. Additionally, he developed an engineering-feasible and cost-effective process for carbon capture and utilization through a collaborative project with scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In the recent years, his research interests have extended to developing new applications in solar-driven CO2 and H2O-to-H2O2 fuel cells, thin vapor chamber (via nano-capillary pump loop) for heat dissipation of photoelectric devices, and recycling of chlorofluorocarbon wastes to diamond. Currently, he is working to scale up the novel fluidized capacitive deionization process which enables repurpose of seawater to fresh water through efficient capturing lithium and desalination.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Solar-driven H2O-to-H2O2 by NiP/BiOI-gC3N4 composites.

Author(s): Y.-F. Liou, L.-W. Wei, H. Paul Wang.

Country: Taiwan.

Abstract

Water splitting to hydrogen and oxygen through a four-electron transport route has been widely studied for hydrogen energy. Alternatively, H2O can photocatalytically yield H2 and H2O2 (2H2O → H2(g) + H2O2(aq)) through a two-electron reaction that is more kinetically feasible. The naturally separated H2O2 aqueous solution from gaseous H2 can be directly utilized in oxidation of organic pollutants in wastewater. In this work, NiP dispersed bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI) and graphite carbon nitride (gC3N4) composites were prepared for photoelectrodes to yield H2O2. And other transition metal phosphide such as CoP with BiOI-gC3N4 was also used to enhance the solar driven H2O-to-H2O2 reactivity. As the NiP and CoP dispersed BiOI-gC3N4 composite are very effective for H2O2 yields, it would be very useful for the feed of a H2O2 fuel cell for electricity.

Keywords

Hydrogen peroxide, bismuth-based catalyst, NiP.

Highlights
  • H 2 O can photocatalytically yield H 2 and H 2 O 2 (2H 2 O → H 2(g) + H 2 O 2(aq) ) through a two-electron reaction that is more kinetically feasible.
  • As the NiP and CoP dispersed BiOI-gC 3 N 4 composite are very effective for H 2 O 2 yields, it would be very useful for the feed of a H 2 O 2 fuel cell for electricity.


Corresponding author Biography

H. Paul Wang is a Chair Professor of Environmental Engineering Department at National Cheng Kung University. He has extensive research and development expertise in nanotechnology, green energy, and incineration/gasification/pyrolysis engineering. His prior experiences include the development of a multi-faceted and comprehensive recycling of biomass and wastewater with Texaco Inc. in California, US. Additionally, he developed an engineering-feasible and cost-effective process for carbon capture and utilization through a collaborative project with scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In the recent years, his research interests have extended to developing new applications in solar-driven CO2 and H2O-to-H2O2 fuel cells, thin vapor chamber (via nano-capillary pump loop) for heat dissipation of photoelectric devices, and recycling of chlorofluorocarbon wastes to diamond. Currently, he is working to scale up the novel fluidized capacitive deionization process which enables repurpose of seawater to fresh water through efficient capturing lithium and desalination..

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Numerical simulation of highly-efficient lead free tin-based perovskite solar cell with Sb2S3 as novel hole transport layer.

Author(s): Most. Marzia Khatun, Sabrina Rahman, Adnan Hosen, Md. Nur Hossain Riyad, Adil Sunny, Sheikh Rashel Al Ahmed .

Country: Bangladesh.

Abstract

This work reports the performance enhancement of lead free perovskite solar cell (PSC) with Sb2S3 as a novel hole transport layer (HTL) numerically by using Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator in One Dimensional (SCAPS-1D). Three different HTLs such as Sb2S3, Spiro-OMeTAD, and CuI are introduced into the conventional CH3NH3SnI3-based solar cell configuration consisting of Al/FTO/WS2/CH3NH3SnI3/Sb2S3 or Spiro-OMeTAD or CuI/Ni. The photovoltaic performances of the lead free perovskite solar cells with the proposed HTLs are evaluated extensively and compared using the SCAPS-1D simulation tool. The impacts of thickness, defect density, acceptor density of perovskite absorber and valance band offset at HTL/perovskite interface on the device performance parameters are analyzed. The variation of working temperature on the PSC outputs is also investigated to realize the stability of the proposed PSC with Sb2S3 HTL. The thicknesses of the WS2 electron transport layer (ETL), CH3NH3SnI3 absorber, and Sb2S3 HTL are optimized to be 0.05 m, 0.7 m, and 0.1 m, respectively. The improved power conversion efficiency is achieved to be 27.29% for the optimized solar cell structure of Al/FTO/WS2/CH3NH3SnI3/Sb2S3/Ni, while the efficiencies of 25.65% and 21.21% are obtained for the lead free the PSCs with Spiro-OMeTAD and CuI HTLs, respectively. Based on the overall investigation and simulation results of the proposed device, it is predicted that WS2 as ETL and Sb2S3 as HTL would be very promising for enhancing the performance of the lead free tin-based PSC, and it would provide constructive research opportunities for the designers to fabricate low-cost lead-free PSCs.

Keywords

Tin-based perovskite, lead free, HTL, Sb2S3, performance enhancement.

Highlights
  • Performance enhancement of lead free perovskite solar cell with Sb 2 S 3 as a novel hole transport layer has been reported numerically by SCAPS-1D.
  • A comparative study for different hole transport layers into conventional lead free CH 3 NH 3 SnI 3 -based PSC has also been presented to substantiate performance of proposed solar cell.
  • Impressive power conversion efficiency of 27.29% is recorded for the new device configuration of Al/FTO/WS 2 /CH 3 NH 3 SnI 3 /Sb 2 S 3 /Ni.


Corresponding author Biography

Most. Marzia Khatun is a fourth year student in the Department of Electrical, Electronic and Communication Engineering at Pabna University of Science and Technology, Bangladesh. Her research interests include solar cell physics and fabrication, especially perovskite and thin-film solar cells.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Selective extraction of cobalt from spent lithium-ion batteries.

Author(s): Y.-C. Tsai, T.-E. Wu, I-H. Chen, Y.-J. Tuan, H.-P. Wang.

Country: Taiwan.

Abstract

Lithium-ion battery (LIB) are widely used in electronic products and electric vehicles largely due to the advantages of low price, low memory effect, high power efficiency, and long life cycle. In recent years, an increasing amount of end-of-life LIBs are to be recycled. Extraction of spent LIB has been carried out for recycling of valuable metals such as cobalt. Environmental friendly organic acids such as citric acid was used to selectively extract cobalt. For a better understanding of the cobalt speciation during extraction, in situ synchrotron extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra at 323-363 K. Specifically, H2O2 (0-1%) was added during the extraction to obtain desired Co3+/Co2+ ratios that also facilitate the extraction efficiency.

Keywords

lithium ion battery, cobalt, extraction, citric acid, EXAFS.

Highlights
  • For a better understanding of the cobalt speciation during extraction, in situ synchrotron extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra at 323-363 K.
  • 2. Hydrogen peroxide (0-1%) was added during the extraction to obtain desired Co(Ⅲ)/Co (Ⅱ) ratios that also facilitate the extraction efficiency.


Corresponding author Biography

H. Paul Wang is a Chair Professor of Environmental Engineering Department at National Cheng Kung University. He has extensive research and development expertise in nanotechnology, green energy, and incineration/gasification/pyrolysis engineering. His prior experiences include the development of a multi-faceted and comprehensive recycling of biomass and wastewater with Texaco Inc. in California, US. Additionally, he developed an engineering-feasible and cost-effective process for carbon capture and utilization through a collaborative project with scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In the recent years, his research interests have extended to developing new applications in solar-driven CO2 and H2O-to-H2O2 fuel cells, thin vapor chamber (via nano-capillary pump loop) for heat dissipation of photoelectric devices, and recycling of chlorofluorocarbon wastes to diamond. Currently, he is working to scale up the novel fluidized capacitive deionization process which enables repurpose of seawater to fresh water through efficient capturing lithium and desalination.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Improving Energy Performance and Thermal Comfort for Heritage Buildings: A Case Study Murabaa Palace .

Author(s): Abobakr Al-Sakkaf, Sherif Mahmoud and Eslam Mohammed Abdelkader.

Country: Canada.

Abstract

Heritage Buildings are significant of their historical and architecture added value, which require in deep and precise preliminary brainstorming when considering upgrade or retrofitting of these valuable buildings. This study opts to spotlight on some passive design architecture interventions to improve the thermal comfort and the required cooling energy for the building. The Murabaa Palace in Riyadh was selected as a case study. The design builder software was used to evaluate the energy performance of four passive architectural design alternatives. The results show that using Low-E double glass in addition to applying double wall with polystyrene thermal insulation can enhance the thermal comfort inside the building and reduce the energy performance and CO2 emissions to 17% and 9% respectively.

Keywords

Heritage buildings, passive design, energy conservation, and reduction of CO2 emissions.

Highlights
  • The Murabaa Palace in Riyadh was selected as a case study.
  • The results show that using Low-E double glass in addition to applying double wall with polystyrene thermal insulation.
  • The isulation can enhance the thermal comfort inside the building and reduce the energy performance and CO 2 emissions to 17% and 9% respectively.


Corresponding author Biography

Abobakr Al-Sakkaf is an architect and urban planner who has worked as a lecturer at Hadhramout University, Mukalla, Yemen, where he attained his B.Sc. degree in Architectural Engineering. He attained his M.Sc. in Architecture from King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Currently, he is a Ph.D. candidate in the sustainability assessment of Heritage Building at Concordia University, in Montreal, Canada.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Dechloriation of incineration fly ash by fluidized capacitive deionization for utilization.

Author(s): P.-C. Chang, P.-A. Chen, H. Paul Wang.

Country: Taiwan.

Abstract

Most of non-recyclable municipal solid wastes have been treated by incineration for energy recovery and stabilization. However, the fly ash (FA) discharged from air pollution control devices contains toxic metals and chlorides as well as leachable dioxins that make it considered as hazardous wastes. Chlorides in FA that was washed with water can be removed by electrosorption using the new fluidized capacitive deionization (FdCDI) method. Ions including Cl- in water can be stored in the electrical double layer (EDL) of electrodes, and deionized water (<50 mg/L) can be recycled and reuse under low voltages (0.8-1.2 V). Note that the regeneration of FdCDI can be achieved by applying a zero or reversed voltage. In the FdCDI process, no chemical is needed, resulting no sludge to be discharged and treated. In addition, the effects of Cl- counter ions during FdCDI was also studied. The Cl- removal efficiency (51% approximately) with the salt adsorption capacity of 10 mg /g was obtained in the FdCDI process. This work illustrates that fly ash can be dechlorided by the FdCDI method for utilization such as civil engineering fillers.

Keywords

Municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash, fluidized capacitive deionization, water washing, chloride electrosorption, zero waste.

Highlights
  • Chlorides in municipalsolid  incineration fly ash (FA) that was washed with water can be removed by electrosorption using the new fluidized capacitive deionization (FdCDI) method.
  • Ions including Cl – in water can be stored in the electrical double layer (EDL) of electrodes, and deionized water (&lt;50 mg/L) can be recycled and reuse under low voltages (0.8-1.2 V).
  • 3. In the FdCDI process, no chemical is needed, resulting no sludge to be discharged and treated.


Corresponding author Biography

H. Paul Wang is a Chair Professor of Environmental Engineering Department at National Cheng Kung University. He has extensive research and development expertise in nanotechnology, green energy, and incineration/gasification/pyrolysis engineering. His prior experiences include the development of a multi-faceted and comprehensive recycling of biomass and wastewater with Texaco Inc. in California, US. Additionally, he developed an engineering-feasible and cost-effective process for carbon capture and utilization through a collaborative project with scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In the recent years, his research interests have extended to developing new applications in solar-driven CO2 and H2O-to-H2O2 fuel cells, thin vapor chamber (via nano-capillary pump loop) for heat dissipation of photoelectric devices, and recycling of chlorofluorocarbon wastes to diamond. Currently, he is working to scale up the novel fluidized capacitive deionization process which enables repurpose of seawater to fresh water through efficient capturing lithium and desalination..

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: A comparative numerical study of different hole transport layers to improve performance of Cs 2 TiI 6 based perovskite solar cell.

Author(s): Muhammad Shafiqul Islam ,Md. Ashfaqul Haque, Dr. Sheikh Rashel Al Ahmed* .

Country: Bangladesh.

Abstract

In the quest of new source of renewable energy source, perovskite have shown promising breakthroughs as a third generation low-cost solution based thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology. High power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 3.8% in 2006 to 25.2% in 2019 for organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite based PV devices has been achieved. But the drawbacks of hybrid perovskites most of them are lead based, which is toxic and also organic cations are instable. On the other hand, most inorganic perovskites (such as Sn, Ag, Sb, Bi, Cu) are not suitable as they possess large band gaps around 2 eV, furthermore, it has low open circuit voltage, unstable cation and poor charge transport features (Sn+2, Ge+2, Bi+). To overcome limitations, many new types of stable inorganic perovskite have been introduced, such as Cs2TiBr6, Cs2TiI6, Cs2TiF6, and Cs2TiCl6. However, they have poor PCE ranging from 3 to 7% because of high band gap which absorbs a narrow spectrum of high energy photon. Among these new perovskite materials, Cs2TiI6 has the band gap of about 1.8 eV which is logically more likely to absorb less photon energy than other PSC devices.

In this study, numerical simulation has been performed using Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator-1D (SCAPS-1D) software to analyze the performance of Cesium Titanium (IV) Iodide thin film based lead-free perovskite solar cell (PSC). In this research work, three different Hole Transport Layers (NiOx, MoS2 and Cu2O) are examined with the same perovskite absorber layer and common Electron Transport Layer (ETL). Proposed device configuration for this work is Carbon/NiOx or MoS2 or Cu2O/Cs2TiI6/TiO2/FTO/Glass. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) for NiOx, MoS2 and Cu2O employing designs are found to be 13.05%, 12.68% and 14.41%, respectively, where the previous work having the same absorber layer have reported the power conversion efficiency to be 3.13% [5]. In this work, absorber layer thickness have been optimized for all three configurations, as well as the influence of changing operating temperature, defect tolerance and changing series and shunt resistance on perovskite solar cell (PSC) devices have also been investigated. Main goal of this research is to find a high band gap PSC for utilizing in tandem solar cells, in order to enhance overall efficiency by absorbing shorter wavelength portions of the spectrum (high energy photon), which usually remain unused in traditional solar cells.

Keywords

Perovskite solar cell, SCAPS-1D, Cs2TiI6, HTL.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Pending Registration

Article Title: Design and Research on step-heating of larger-aperture PTC solar power.

Author(s): Jinghu Gong.

Country: China.

Abstract

In order to improve the thermal efficiency and outlet temperature of the larger-aperture parabolic trough concentrator (PTC) solar power, a three-stage heating technology is proposed. The single loop, composed of a semicircular absorber tube (AT) with two outer fins, a semicircular AT and a circular AT, makes the temperature rise from 300℃ to 580℃, and it operates safely under the maximum temperature of 600 ℃. The results show that the optical efficiency is 79.1%. The thermal efficiency are 64.3% (DNI = 400W/m2), 69.1% (DNI=600W/m2), 71.4% (DNI=800W/m2) and 72.8% (DNI=1000W/m2), respectively. The length of the single loop is about 1400m and the flow mass rate is 6.1kg/s-19.9kg/s corresponding to DNI of 400W/m2-100W/m2 to meet the requirement of the larger-aperture PTC system temperature. In the low temperature range of 300℃-400℃, the thermal and optical efficiency are the highest and the required length is the shortest. In contrast, the optical and thermal efficiency are the lowest and the required length is the largest in the high temperature range (500℃-580℃). Thermal efficiency in the high-temperature section is about 21% lower than that in the low temperature. By homogenizing the solar radiation flux on the absorber tube (AT) in the high temperature section, the flow mass rate and the AT’s length can be reduced, which could improve the thermal efficiency.