The review process is still in progress and more accepted submissions will be announced soon !

Article Title: Calibration of anaerobic digestion BioModel by using multi-objective optimization and full-scale biogas plant data

Author(s): Tina Kegl

Abstract

Waste management and energy crisis are some of the greatest issues that the world is facing today. This problem can be mitigated by anaerobic digestion (AD), where microorganisms in the absence of oxygen produce biogas from organic waste. A useful tool for AD process understanding and optimization is numerical simulation by using mechanistically inspired mathematical models. In this paper attention is focused on modeling of the AD process of a full-scale biogas plant. Special attention is focused on calibration of 178 model parameters belonging to the BioModel, developed in-house; this is done by using an active set optimization procedure. The agreement of the obtained results of numerical simulation in a single CSTR and the measured AD performance over a period of one year, confirms the efficiently of the used BioModel when considering the presence of the Kemira BDP-840 additive to reduce H 2S content of the produced biogas. The obtained results show that the active set optimization procedure, coupled by a gradient based optimizer to calibrate the model parameters, performs very well. The procedure is numerically efficient, especially if the computation of design derivatives is parallelized. The used BioModel can easily be coupled with the procedure of AD performance optimization.

Keywords

Model parameters, calibration, additives, gradientbased optimization, active set optimization procedure

Highlights
  •  Prediction of anaerobic digestion performance by BioModel in case of a full-scale biogas plant with daily variable feedstock loading
  • Calibration of a large number of BioModel parameters by a novel active set optimization procedure
  • Usage of gradient-based optimization algorithm with adaptive approximation scheme and engagement of the BioModel as a state equation.


Corresponding author Biography

Tina Kegl earned her M.Sc. degree at the University of Maribor, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, where she is now studying for her Ph.D. For her diploma and research works, she has received prestigious awards from international companies Krka and Henkel, the Dean’s Prize, the Perlach Prize from the University of Maribor, and prestigious Zois scholarship from the Republic of Slovenia. Her research work is related to waste treatment, nanotechnology, process system engineering, and sustainable development.

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Article Title: Bioelectricity generation in microbial fuel cell by a membrane electrode assemble: Startup assessment.

Author(s): Ana Carla Sorgato, Thamires Custódio Jeremias, Fernanda Leite Lobo, Flávio Rubens Lapolli.

Abstract

For the last two decades, microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been studied to treat wastewater and simultaneously produce electricity. This innovative bioelectrochemical technology offers the possibility of generating electric current from wide a range of complex organic wastewater. From this perspective, the MFC requires knowledge of structural and material modification in electrodes aimed to enhance the overall performance. Therefore, membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was developed through a combination of electrodes and proton exchange membrane. The MEA provides maximized power generation and extended cell lifetime on the MFC system. In this study, the MFC-MEA was analyzed during the acclimation stage in scale-up aimed at chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and energy generation from a growth medium rich in acetate. Electrochemical analysis and water quality measurements were assessed. We show that the selection and biofilm acclimatization procedure is a simplified process, starting from anaerobic sludge. The results showed the efficiencies of COD removal and maximum power density were 74.60% and 47.49 mWm -2, respectively. Thus, this study indicates a successful startup and a promising reactor configuration for MFC technology.

Keywords

Acclimation; air cathode microbial fuel cell; COD removal; renewable energy; energy recovery.

Highlights
  • The startup of a two-liter MEA-MFC is described;
  • In 15 days, the MEA-MFC achieve stable electricity generation, being able to be operated with wastewater;
  • The maximum power density achieved was 47.49 mW m -2 with a COD removal rate of 74.6%.


Corresponding author Biography

Ana Carla Sorgato received a Bachelor’s degree in Sanitary and Environmental Engineering from the Federal University of Santa Maria, in 2020. Now, she is currently a Master’s student of Environmental Engineering at the Federal University of Santa Catarina. Her research interests are in the field of microbial fuel cell (MFC), focusing on electricity generation from wastewater, energy self-sufficient wastewater treatment, hybrid systems, and sustainable development.

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Article Title: Assessing the Overall Feasibility of a Commercial Scale Food Irradiation Facility in Manila, Philippines

Author(s): Justin Chua

Abstract

Food irradiation is a novel, up and coming technology that preserves and extends the lifespan of food. The Philippines (more specifically, its capital city of Manila) has yet to capitalize on this effective technique, which has the potential to mitigate many of its pervasive issues such as hunger and food insecurity, unnecessary food wastage, and air pollution. Many of the Philippines’ neighboring countries in the Asia-Pacific region (such as China, Japan and India) have had major success implementing food irradiation facilities. In fact, the Philippines already has a commercial irradiation facility in Intramuros, Manila; however, it’s relatively small and its impacts are negligible. Currently, there is a dearth of research on the feasibility of utilizing this technology on a larger scale in the Philippines, but the potential benefits a larger facility could bring to the country are too significant to ignore. Thus, this paper will conduct a cost-benefit analysis to assess the feasibility of the Philippines constructing a commercial scale gamma irradiation facility with a capacity of 1 millicurie (MCi)—comparable to those found in the aforementioned neighboring countries and 12 times larger than the current facility in Intramuros. A variation of Bateman et al.’s SEER framework (“Social, Economic and Environmental Assessment for Land Use Decision Making” model)—which evaluates a project from its environmental, economic, and social impacts—will be utilized to guide the cost-benefit analysis, in conjunction with the 5-point Likert assessment framework. Overall, the results deemed that a larger scale facility had a cost-benefit ratio of 1:5 and would be highly advantageous for the Philippines.

Keywords

Food irradiation, cost-benefit analysis, environmental, economic, social

Highlights
  • Through a cost benefit analysis, it can be seen that a 1 MCi gamma irradiation facility would be overall beneficial to

Manila, Philippines with a cost benefit ratio of 1.5

  • The 1 MCi gamma irradiation facility would have a positive impact on the environment with a cost benefit ratio of 2,

through its reduction to food waste and methane emissions.

  • Through profits gained locally and internationally, the 1 MCi gamma irradiation facility would boost the economy with

a cost benefit ratio 1.3.

  • Highlighted by the reduction of hunger and job opportunities created, the 1 MCi gamma irradiation would have a net positive social effect with a cost benefit ratio of 1.25.


Corresponding author Biography

Justin Chua is a high school sophomore and student journalist at International School Manila (Philippines). He enjoys both creative writing and research writing. His topics of interests include researching new technologies as applied in the Philippines, specifically in the field of food security and infrastructure. Sustainability is a true passion of his, and he uses his writing to share the possibilities of revolutionary up and coming technologies.

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Article Title: Energy and environmental impact of banning the sale of traditional fossil fuel vehicles.

Author(s): Shouheng Sun, Qi Wu and Dafei Yang.

Abstract

This study investigates the energy and environmental impacts of banning the sale of traditional fossil fuel vehicles in China. By using the Logistic model, the dynamic evolution of China’s vehicle market under different timing of banning the sale of traditional fuel vehicles was simulated. Based on this, the fossil energy saving and greenhouse gas emission reduction potential of promoting new energy vehicles under different energy development scenarios was further explored from the life cycle perspective. The results show that under China’s current electricity mix, the life cycle GHG emissions intensity and fossil energy consumption intensity of battery electric vehicles are about 40.94% (120.04 g CO2-eq/km) and 45.90% (1.68 MJ/km) lower than those of gasoline-powered vehicles, respectively. As the proportion of renewable electricity generation continues to increase, by 2050, replacing traditional fuel vehicles with battery electric vehicles can reduce GHG emissions and fossil energy consumption by up to 58.26% and 53.03%, respectively. In addition, if China plans to ban the sale of traditional fuel vehicles between 2040 and 2060, the cumulative fossil energy savings and GHG emissions reductions during the period of 2020~2050 can reach approximately 32.54~129.10 million TJ and 2.70 ~ 9.32 billion tons of CO2-eq, respectively.

Keywords

Battery Electric Vehicle, Ban Sales of Fossil Fuel Vehicles, Fuel Life Cycle, Fossil Energy Consumption, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Logistic Equation.

Highlights
  • Dynamic evolution of China’s vehicle market under different timing of banning the sale of traditional fuel vehicles was simulated.
  • The fossil energy saving and greenhouse gas emission reduction potential of promoting new energy vehicles under different energy development scenarios was explored.
  • By 2050, replacing traditional fuel vehicles with battery electric vehicles can reduce GHG emissions and fossil energy consumption by up to 58.26% and 53.03%, respectively.
  • If China plans to ban the sale of traditional fuel vehicles between 2040 and 2060, the cumulative fossil energy savings and GHG emissions reductions during the period of 2020~2050 can reach approximately 32.54~129.10 million TJ and 2.70 ~ 9.32 billion tons of CO2-eq, respectively.


Corresponding author Biography

Dafei Yang is an assistant professor of School of Economics and Management at Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology. His research focuses on technological innovation, energy and environmental management, and regional economic development.

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Article Title: Improving the energy efficiency of microsystems with solar PV resources for individual power supply of residential buildings (feasibility study for the regions of Azerbaijan).

Author(s): Nariman Rahmanov and Aynur Mahmudova.

Abstract

In recent years, small, isolated power supply systems have been widely developed, in which the main share of electricity generation is produced based on low-power renewable sources (solar PV converters, wind turbines and other types of RS). At present, schemes of mini and micro-systems of power supply with different composition of renewable sources, differing in parameters depending on geographic and weather conditions of their locations. While there are no universal approaches to choosing the optimal combination used in such systems of renewable sources and traditional sources (diesel generator, batteries) used. This article provides a practical method for the technical feasibility study for the construction of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (SAPV) system in Karabakh region of Azerbaijan Republic. Based on the current growing role of the subject region, its energy security and economic development the aim is to build the most efficient and optimal cleaner energy production facilities in this area. Considering the lack of methodology for the measurement of renewable energy potential in Karabakh region, we employed evaluation methods based on mapping techniques, simulation software for solar stand-alone unit and the analytical tools offered by PVSyst Software. Solar module, battery, DC/AC pure sine wave power inverter, and the charge controller are the main components of the suggested PV system design. Choosing optimal capacity and arrangement increase the plant’s efficiency and reduces the overall system costs. In this method, according to the geographical location the number of solar modules and their optimal angles are defined. PVSyst software is used for the system analysis, and the simulation results show the performance of the designed system on an individual residential building located in Zangilan city of Karabakh region. The main novelty of this study is related to the integration of the renewable energy potential maps combined with a density of population, are good predictors of locations for the development of renewable energy source-based facilities. The study concludes with recommendations towards the optimal size of stand-alone solar system and its components and use of renewable energy potential to achieve more balanced regional development and clean energy production.

Keywords

stand-alone, clean energy, solar photovoltaic, PV system, PVsyst.

Highlights
  • Collection of GIS data from different satellite sources and data comparison
  • Calculation of declination, elevation, and tilt angles for PV panel selection of the system
  • Selection of PV system components and typical schematic diagram
  • Simulation of different PV system options via PVSyst software
  • Discussion of performance, efficiency, and technical feasibility of selected PV system for the residential building.


Corresponding author Biography

Aynur Mahmudova graduated as B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering. from Azerbaijan State Oil Academy, in 2014. Currently is a PhD candidate in Azerbaijan Scientific-Research and Design Prospecting Power Engineering Institute. Member of IEEE PES, IAENG, ESOF and Energy Institute. Working as an Electrical Coordinator within Shah-Deniz-2, CGLP and ACE projects in international oil & gas company. Has participated in ICTPE and WCE conferences held in different countries. Star Ambassador of IEEE PES YP Powering the Future Summit-2021. Member of Scientific Council working group on Alternative and Renewable energy sources under Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences.

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Article Title: The Social Assimilation of a New Architectural Proposal for Comfort.

Author(s): Garcia-Lopez Esperanza, Heard Christopher.

Abstract

The case history is of a community called “La Cañada” which is found in the municipality of Huixquilucan, Estado de México, Mexico. It is a village not far from the eastern edge of Mexico City and thus subject to strong social and transcultural pressures. A covering based on textile fibres was proposed for an experimental building in the aforementioned village. The design of the covering took into account relevant climatic factors such as temperature, humidity and rainfall. A double roof was proposed which would attenuate extreme low temperatures and at the same time be impervious. The whole proposal was made considering the villagers, especially their average income (to assure economic feasibility). Statistics for the population were consulted: age distribution, gender, religion etc. with a view to grounding the proposal in their local needs. However, during the development of the proposal, a question arose: are we really designing for this population or are we assuming that they will appropriate the suggested materials and will they identify with our objectives of lower energy use and greater sustainability? This was the objective of the research herein presented…

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Article Title: Environmental Effects of dust deposition on solar PV panels in the surface Mining Industry.

Author(s): Ganti Praful Kumar, Hrushikesh Naik and Kanungo Barada Mohanty.

Abstract

This paper highlights a study of Solar Photo-Voltaic (PV) energy system from the environmental impact analysis and its effects point of view and the enhancement factors affecting the Solar Photovoltaic (PV) module by the tilt angles variation on power output of MPPT and dust accumulation on solar PV panel. The Efficiency of solar PV energy system from the environmental impacts in Mining Industry and also a Laboratory study is also conducted and a specific investigation on dust deposition effect on the solar photovoltaic (PV) panel, its power loss and overall efficiency of the solar panel are made. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis carried out for the collected dust samples, and obtained images are also analyzed. A specific investigation on dust samples like Iron ore, Coal, Limestone, Sandstone of different weights, and three different irradiation levels of 500,700,900W/m2 is done and the following data collected. In this study, measuring of voltage current, power in the solar photovoltaic (PV) panel is also done. According to the accumulation of dust particles on the solar panel the minimum power of the solar panel is observed for deposition of Coal dust on the solar PV panel and the maximum power of the solar PV panel is observed for deposition of Iron ore dust on the solar PV module.

Keywords

Scanning Electron Microscope, dust deposition, irradiation levels voltage, current, power.

Highlights
  • Dust accumulation is one of the significant factors affecting the solar panel efficiency. Especially in remote mining areas where weather conditions are going to effect, the solar panels performance.
  • In the observation of 20g of accumulated coal dust on the solar panel, it can reduce its power loss up to 66.29%, for 80g of accumulated coal dust on the solar panel. It can reduce its power loss up to 97.75%for 500W/m 2 .
  • For the same dust particle with different irradiance 700W/m 2 80gm of accumulated coal dust power loss up to 97.33% for the same coal dust particle with different irradiance 900W/m 2 for 80 gm of accumulated coal dust on PV module can reduce up to 97.90%.
  • In addition, from Images of SEM analysis, the coal dust sample is found with tiny particles in size of all samples taken in the experimental study. It indicates that finite dust particles are also going to affect the performance of the solar PV module.


Corresponding author Biography

Ganti Praful Kumar is working as a full-time PhD research scholar in the Department of Mining Engineering at National Institute of Technology Rourkela, Odisha, India. He did his B. Tech (Electrical Engineering) in St peters Engineering college & Technology Hyderabad, affiliated to JNTU Hyderabad, Telangana, India. Later, he completed his M. Tech (Mining Engineering) at NIT-Rourkela, Rourkela, Odisha, India. Later he completed his AMIE (Sec-B) (Mining Engineering) at The Institution of Engineers (India) He contributed two (SCI) scientific articles to internationally peer-reviewed journals, and one international conference based on his research work. His research interests include Solar PV, Green energy, Surface Mining Technology, Environmental Engineering, Optimization Methods and Techniques.

Dr. Hrushikesh Naik graduated in the year 1984 from the then Regional Engineering College (Presently National Institute of Technology), Rourkela, Odisha, India in Mining Engineering Discipline. He obtained his (M.Tech.) Master of Technology degree (Specialization in Open Cast Mining) from Indian Institute of Technology IIT (ISM) University, Dhanbad, India. He obtained his Ph.D. degree from National Institute of Technology (NIT) Rourkela. He served Coal India Limited (CIL) for one year in an underground coal mine as an under manager. Then he decided to serve his Almamater and joined as a faculty member in the year 1985 in the Department of Mining Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela. He was Head of the Department for three years and he was also Project Officer and Head of the Nodal Centre for Odisha (NTMIS) for five years. He visited Southern Illinois University (SIU), Carbondale, USA in the year 2006, Kentucky University, Lexington, USA, in the year 2009 and Denver, Colorado, USA in year 2011 to upgrade his technical knowledge. To his credit he has got more than 40 research articles published in National and International Journals and Conference Proceedings. His areas of interest are Surface Mining Technology, Underground Coal Mining Technology, Mine Surveying, Mine Hazards and Rescue Operations in Underground Coal Mines, Mine Legislation and Safety Engineering, Noise and Vibration, Renewable Energy (Solar), Fly Ash Management and Utilization. He is a fellow of Institution of Engineers (India) and Life member of Mining Engineer’s Association of India.


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Article Title: Whole-body Vibration Exposure of Opencast HEMM Operators –Development of a Conceptual Structural Equation Model.

Author(s): D.R. Grahacharya , Falguni Sarkar and H.K. Naik.

Abstract

In the mining industry, HEMM (Heavy Earth Moving Machinery) operators usually suffer from Whole Body Vibration (WBV) exposure. The vibrations generated from machinery sources during operation are transmitted to the human body. There are several undesirable health hazards arises due to WBV exposure in opencast mines, which includes deterioration of ‘nervous system’, ‘circulatory system’, ‘digestive system’, and ‘low back pain’. This paper is anticipated to examine how machine condition, haul road condition, operational culture and work time exposure affect vibration exposure of mine operators in an opencast mine. In this context, a conceptual model is developed by means of path-analysis through Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). As there are no statutory guidelines and standardised threshold limit available for WBV with Indian mine operators, relevant clauses of International Organisation for Standardization are followed for monitoring WBV.

Keywords

Whole Body Vibration (WBV), opencast mines, conceptual model, SEM, ISO 2631-1(1997), ISO 2631-5(2004).

Highlights
  • In the mining industry, HEMM (Heavy Earth Moving Machinery) operators usually suffer from Whole Body Vibration

(WBV) exposure. The vibrations generated from mining machinery sources during operation are transmitted to the human body. There are several undesirable health hazards which arises due to WBV exposure in opencast mines, which includes deterioration of ‘nervous system’, ‘circulatory system’, ‘digestive system’, and ‘low back pain’.

  • This paper is anticipated to examine how machine condition, haul road condition, operational culture and work time

exposure which affect vibration exposure of mine operators in an opencast mine.

  • In this context, a conceptual equation model is developed by means of path-analysis through Structural Equation

Modelling (SEM).

  • As there are no statutory guidelines and standardized threshold limits available for WBV with Indian mine operators, relevant clauses of International Organization for Standardization are followed for monitoring WBV.


Corresponding author Biography

Dr. Hrushikesh Naik graduated in the year 1984 from the then Regional Engineering College (Presently National Institute of Technology), Rourkela, Odisha, India in Mining Engineering Discipline. He obtained his (M.Tech.) Master of Technology degree (Specialization in Open Cast Mining) from Indian Institute of Technology IIT (ISM) University, Dhanbad, India. He obtained his Ph.D. degree from National Institute of Technology (NIT) Rourkela. He served Coal India Limited (CIL) for one year in an underground coal mine as an under manager. Then he decided to serve his Almamater and joined as a faculty member in the year 1985 in the Department of Mining Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela. He was Head of the Department for more than three years and he was also Project Officer and Head of the Nodal Centre for Odisha (NTMIS) for five years. He visited Southern Illinois University (SIU), Carbondale, USA in the year 2006, Kentucky University, Lexington, USA, in the year 2009 and Denver, Colorado, USA in year 2011 to upgrade his technical knowledge and skill development. To his credit he has got more than 40 research articles published in National and International Journals and Conference Proceedings. His areas of research interest are Surface Mining Technology, Underground Coal Mining Technology, Mine Surveying, Mine Hazards and Rescue Operations in Underground Coal Mines, Mine Legislation and Safety Engineering, Noise and Vibration in mines, Renewable Energy (Solar), Fly Ash Management and Utilization. He is a fellow of Institution of Engineers (India) and Life member of Mining Engineer’s Association of India.

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Article Title: Black-out diesel engine operation modelling for the CHPP start-up.

Author(s): DuSan Strusnik, Marko Agrez, Jurij Avsec.

Abstract

Modelling power plants using real process data is crucial in determining the cost-effectiveness and flexibility of systems. The quality of the elaborated model is determined with the validation of the model, which can also give results for the operating regimes of the plant, which are not often used in practice. In this way, also the operation and responsiveness of power plants outside the range of planned operation are determined. The model simulates the operation of a diesel engine (DE) required to start a combined heat & power plant (CHPP) from a black-out or loss of the electrical power network supply. The model is made on the basis of data provided by the manufacturer and the measured DE data. The results of the model enable detailed insight into the characteristics of the DE behaviour at different operating regimes. The economic and ecological rationale ranges of operation of the DE can be determined from the characteristics of operation. The results of the model show that the DE operates with a 41.72% average efficiency, consumes from 0.114 kg/s of diesel fuel for its operation and up to 3.68 kg/s of air, the air ratio ranges from 2.2 to 2.5. DE develops shaft power up to 2170 kW.

Keywords

Air-Fuel Equivalence Ratio, Black-Out, Diesel Engine, Thermal Efficiency, Shaft Power.

Highlights
  • Black-out diesel engine operation modelling for the CHPP start-up cycle is carried out.
  • Model is made from data provided by the manufacturer and the measured diesel engine data and the quality is identified in a validation procedure.
  • The results show that the diesel engine operates with a large excess of air ʎ = 2.2, and the efficiency varies ranging from 20% up to 45%.
  • The efficiency of the diesel engine can be greatly improved by utilising the heat of the exhaust gases and the cooling water.


Corresponding author Biography

Dušan Strušnik is an assistant professor at the University of Maribor, Faculty for Energy Technology and development engineer specialist at the Energetika Ljubljana. His research focuses on the energy and exergy efficiency analysis of power plants. Member of European Clean Hydrogen Alliance.

Jurij Avsec is an professor at the University of Maribor, Faculty for Energy Technology. His research focuses on the thermodynamics, mechanics, hydrogen technologies and applied thermal engineering…

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Article Title: Effect of energy renovation on indoor air quality of a French school building.

Author(s): Najwa Kanama, Michel Ondarts, Gaëlle Guyot, Jonathan Outin, Benjamin Golly, Evelyne Gonze.

Abstract

Indoor air quality (IAQ) and thermal comfort issues in schools are of particular public concern because children represent a vulnerable population group to air pollution. In fact, their respiratory and immune systems are still developing and a long-term exposure to indoor air pollutants might have a significant impact on their health and scholarly. This study focuses on the effect of the energy renovation of two classrooms which consists of the implementation of a dual flow ventilation system with high efficiency filters (F7). The classrooms are located in an alpine valley (France) known for its high level of atmospheric pollution. To do this, carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and PM2.5 were monitored continuously over twice two-month periods before and after the renovation in winter 2018 and 2020, respectively. In addition, the ventilation airflows were measured and a daily questionnaire that report the information on general condition in the classroom were recorded day-to-day. The results of these campaigns indicate that before the renovation, the two rooms were confined, estimated by IAQ index such as ICONE index which are equal to 2. The CO2 concentration reached to 4790 ppmv due to a very low air exchange rate 0.05 h -1. During the high PM 2.5 levels episodes observed in outdoor air, the low air exchange rate limited the transport of PM 2.5 from the outside to the inside of the classrooms. As a result, the percentages of concentration exceedance compared to WHO recommendations were 23% and 17%, in class 1 and class 2 respectively, while it reached 68% in outdoor air.

After the renovation, the ventilation airflow was higher than before renovation and reached to 2.46 h -1. As consequence, a drastic reduction of the confinement was measured with ICONE index of class 2 reaching to 0. The CO2 concentrations are remained low with a maximum value of 1150 ppmv. Rather the high air renewal generates a significant inflow of outdoor particulate pollution which the indoor PM 2.5 concentrations range were 20-80 μg.m -3 during the outdoor air pollution episodes. However, the indoor concentrations were all the time lower than those observed outside with indoor/outdoor concentration ratio about 0.5. It can be assumed that the filtration of the supply air allowed to limit the entrance of the particles. However, this figure should be taken with caution because of the complex physic associated with particle behaviours (e.g. sedimentation, resuspension, etc). In addition, it is interesting to note that a dysfunction of the ventilation system led to a situation close to that before renovation, both with regard to the rate of ventilation airflow, as well as the concentrations of CO2 and PM 2.5.

Keywords

Indoor air quality, energy renovation, school, ventilation, filtration, thermal comfort, PM2.5, ventilation airflow.

Highlights
  • We studied the effect of the energy renovation into 2 classrooms which consists of the implementation of a dual flow ventilation system with high efficiency filters (F7).
  • We analyzed carbon dioxide CO 2 , temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), PM 2.5 and ventilation airflows data measured into 2 occupied classrooms for 2 months before and after the energy renovation.
  • We calculated CO 2 , T, RH and PM 2.5 -based Indoor Air Quality performance indicators in schools.
  • We analyzed the IAQ variability in the classrooms, before and after the energy renovation, etc.
  • We analyzed the impact of a dysfunction of the ventilation system both regarding the rate of ventilation airflow, as well as the concentrations of CO 2 and PM 2.5 


Corresponding author Biography

Najwa Kanama, PhD student in LOCIE : Laboratoire Optimisation de la Conception et Ingénierie de l’Environnement, USMB : Université Savoie Mont-Blanc, in France. She has been working in Aleppo University in Syria since 2010 to 2015 as research engineer. She came, with her family to France, to start again with Master in Solar and Solar building and PhD thesis after that. One paper is published as result of her thesis titled “ Indoor Air Quality Campaign in an Occupied Low-Energy House with a High Level of Spatial and Temporal Discretization”; Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(24), 11789; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112411789 

She continues her researches at indoor air quality consideration of the urban environment on the choice and sizing of ventilation systems in housing and the impact of pollution transfers outside/inside the building. She started to study pollutants in low-energy house. She is working now at IAQ in a primary school situated in very polluted area. Another future project is to study IAQ in renewed residential building.

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Article Title: An efficient model for induction motor fault detection using deep transfer learning network.

Author(s): Alasmer Ibrahim, Fatih Anayi, Michael Packianather.

Abstract

The reliability and availability of induction motors is significant which can be achieved by monitoring the performance of the motor regularly in the industry. Knowledge-based approaches can be able efficiently to deal with the sensor data for ensuring the reliability with high motor performance. Recently, deep learning networks based on machine learning structures have provided an accurate and faster framework for fault diagnosis by ignoring feature extraction process. However, training a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) is complex and time-consuming procedure. For this reason, this paper proposes a novel deep learning procedure for fault diagnosis using thermal images data of the induction motor applying residual neural network with 50 convolutional layers as feature extraction. The pre-trained deep convolutional (ResNet-50) of the transfer learning is trained on ImageNet based weight. This work includes the effect of data augmentation for enhancing the performance of the proposed model and ensuring its robustness for fault diagnosis. Firstly, the collected images are pre-processed resized as input datatype of Resnet-50 network. Next, transfer leaning model based on convolutional neural network (ResNet-50) structure is built to process the prepared images. Lastly, classifying the prepared images based on the related conditions of the induction motor. The experimental result shows that the proposed model has achieved an accuracy of 99.98%. The presented model has further compared with recent deep learning applications, and it has proved its robustness in fault diagnosis.

Keywords

Thermal mages, ResNet-50 model, pre-trained model, fault diagnosis.

Highlights
  • A novel deep learning model for fault diagnosis is proposed for a three-phase squirrel cage induction motor. 
  • The suggested application which is an accurate framework utilizes thermal images data of different induction motor conditions and residual neural network with 50 convolutional layers as a feature extraction tool. Moreover, the effect of data augmentation is considered for enhancing the performance of the proposed model and ensuring its robustness for fault diagnosis. 
  • Thermal images are acquired and pre-processed namely resized and augmented as input datatype of the Resnet-50 network.  
  • The pre-trained deep convolutional (ResNet-50) of the transfer learning is built and trained faster on ImageNet based weight. 
  • The experimental result shows that the proposed model has achieved an accuracy of 99.98% with a training error of 0.0015. .


Corresponding author Biography

Alasmer Ibrahim received a B.Sc. degree in Electrical and Electronic engineering from Al-Gufra University, Hoon, Libya. In 2016, received a M.Sc. degree in Electronics and information technology from the University of South Wales, Pontypridd, U.K 2016. Now, He is pursuing a Ph.D. degree in the field of electrical engineering at Wolfson Centre for Magnetics, Cardiff University, Cardiff, U.K. His research interests focus on the use of optimization techniques and hybrid systems based on fault diagnosis for three-phase squirrel cage induction motor.

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Article Title: Multi-scale landscape visual impact assessment for onshore wind farms in rural area of China.

Author(s): Jinjin Guan, Beining Li, Yinan Lin

Abstract

Growing attention on global de-carbonization, energy security, and sustainable development has made wind energy one of the most popular renewable energy sources. With the trend of huge-size wind turbines and more distributed wind farms constructed in densely populated areas of China, the impact of wind turbines on landscape can’t be ignored. This paper aims to assess landscape visual impact at different spatial scales caused by large-size wind turbines. Several wind farms with different topographic and spatial scales in the Yangtze River Delta of China were selected for viewshed analysis in GIS. Based on the theoretical research on visual perception mechanism and visual impact threshold, the indicators are collected by questionnaires and analyzed with linear regression analysis. The outcomes imply that dynamic components are highly related indicators within a close distance (< 1 km), landscape aesthetics are correlated within a middle distance (1-4 km), and ecological elements are significant at a large distance (> 4km). This paper explores correlated indicators of visual impact at different spatial scales that provide recommendations for wind farm site selection.

Keywords

Wind farm; landscape visual impact assessment; GIS; visual impact threshold

Highlights
  • 1. According to the linear regression analysis, the related factors of visual impact varied at different spatial scales.
  • 2. The visual impact is affected by dynamic components at the close-up scale, followed by ecological function degradation and aesthetic change with distance growth.
  • 3. The visual impact of wind turbines is further discussed based on the theoretical research on visual perception mechanism and visual impact threshold.


Corresponding author Biography

Dr. Jinjin Guan works as a lecturer in the landscape architecture faculty at East China University of Science & Technology. She received her doctor diploma of natural science, specializing in renewable energy and spatial planning, in Ruhr University Bochum, Germany. Her areas of research include energy transition and landscape planning, landscape visual impact of wind farms, social acceptance of renewable energy.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: A methodology for assessment of deep decarbonisation pathways for manufacturing industries in Ireland.

Author(s): Kirestena saeed, John Cosgrove and Frank Doyle.

Abstract

Industrial development has an important role in the economic growth, along with this development, industrial sector has been one of the fastest growing sources of greenhouse gas emissions this growth has been driven by the increase of intensive industry subsectors including cement, iron and steel, chemicals, and aluminum, and because of a socio-economic and population growth. industrial sector is accounts of 30% of greenhouse gas emissions and around 37% of global energy consumption. In agreement with the 2015 united nation conference of parties , (COP21) to reduce the global temperature to reach low than 2 ℃ by the year 2050 , 197 participating countries agreed to take measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions .Achieving this target requires overall changes of the universal economy and may be possible if the level of carbon dioxide ( CO 2) in the environment remains below 450 part per million , however the concentration of carbon dioxide2 continue to increase which is need to a new policies and technologies to reduce the industrial emissions between 29%-41% by the year 2030. Rapid and deep decarbonisation of industry is needed to reduce emissions through many pathways, replacing fossil fuels with renewable technologies such as wind, solar, developing of new technologies and materials coupling with improving energy efficiency and electrification of high temperature heating. This research will investigate the existing information, scope, methodologies, and toolkit relating to deep decarbonisation and will intend a methodology to validate measures towards decarbonisation that are relevant to the Irish context. The research will focus on the greenhouse emissions from Irish manufacturing industries and will set an energy efficiency and energy reduction metric and will propose a methodology for the validation of deep decarbonisation pathways for manufacturing industries in Ireland.

Keywords

Industrial decarbonisation Renewable technology Energy efficency.

Highlights
  • The threat of climate change is one of the biggest challenges now adays, and the greenhouse gas emissions level is significantly high .
  • Industrial sector accounts for 30% of global emissions with many resources of industrial emissions from heat, industrial processes, materials, and products .
  • Companies should reduce carbon emissions by shifting to a renewable energy, improve of energy efficiency with a combination of emerging technologies , and electrification of industry in particular electrification of heat used in the industrial process.


Corresponding author Biography

Kirestena Saeed is a chemical engineer, in 2020 she obtained her master’s degree in advanced engineering materials, her research was investigating the wear properties of thermoplastics composites, glass reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene and carbon reinforced polyether-ether-ketone Currently she is working on research of the assessment of a deep decarbonisation of manufacturing industries in Ireland at the technological university of Shannon.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Strategy for institutional cook stoves promotion in the context of a behavioral change-A case study of Opoku Ware School and ST. Paul’s Seminary, Accra, as the control in the research in Ghana.

Author(s): Michael Kweku Commeh, Christlove Opoku-Appiah, Joseph Okine and James Hawkins Ephraim.

Abstract

76% of households mainly cook using polluting fuels and inefficient cooking technologies or devices (Ghana Statistical Service [GSS] , 2017) [1]. As a result 13,000-16,000 people die from the aforementioned factors. Clean cook stoves borders on SDG 7 on clean energy and SDG 3 on health, SDG 2 on food security and sustainable agriculture, SDG 5 on gender, SDG 11 on cities, and SDG 13 on climate change, (Fenny et al., 2017) [2]. However, improved efficient cooking devices that eliminate the death associated with inefficient cooking stoves are not easily accepted, even when subsidized, (Ackah et al., 2021)[3] .What might be the underlying narratives to this resistance? This article tends to find out using OWASS as the first case study and using St. Paul’s Seminary as a control. The research looked at the design of the institutional stove for both firewood and gas. The pot size is 210 liters stainless steel for 6 gas stoves and 6 firewood stoves.

The experiment from start to finish took exactly one year, from studying cooking dynamics including mental modelling mapping and some social philosophies. It also involved changing over from highly inefficient smoky stoves to efficient little or no indoor air pollution stoves. Results indicated a relatively quick adoption of ICs within two months whilst St. Paul’s Seminary took extra funds and a threatening approach to get cooks to adopt the technology over two months, even though incentives in the form of cash were given. Three major narratives emerged as to the reason for the success toward the adoption or acceptance of the technology, namely; safety of the stove, efficiency or huge energy/cost saving, human centered design, power or control of the fire/flame and discipline in the supervision of management protocol by actors in the improved clean cooking devices value chain. Despite the huge success, work still needs to be done on the safety of the gas stove and continuous training on the management of the cooking devices, especially the gas stove.

Conclusively, acceptability was generally successful with OWASS while St. Paul was with difficulty despite the similarity in problems and solutions.

Keywords

Institutional cooking devices, actors, power play, safety & security and management protocol.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Registered

Article Title: Production of synthesis gas obtained via alkaline water electrolysis and added biomass.

Author(s): Gomes J., Puna J. and Santos T.

Abstract

This paper presents the results of the research currently being carried out at ISEL with the objective of developing new electrochemistry-based processes to obtain renewable synthetic fuels from alkaline water electrolysis using a carbon source. In the developed process, the gas mixture obtained from alkaline water electrolysis and a carbon source is not separated into their components but rather is introduced into a catalyzed reactor, in order to achieve conversion to synthetic 2 nd generation biofuels, such as biomethane, biomethanol, bio-dimethyl ether, etc. Tests have been previously executed in a pilot electrolyzer and reactor of 1 kW, and are now being scaled up to a pilot electrolyzer and reactor of 5 kW, producing 250 l/h CH 4, as an intermediate step to a pilot of 100 kW.

Keywords

Water electrolysis; synthesis gas; biofuels.

Highlights
  • Obtention of synthesis gas via alkaline water electrolysis and added biomass, without gas separation near the electrodes
  • Conversion of synthesis gas to liquid fuels in a heterogeneous catalysed reactor
  • Storage of excess electricity from the grid into renewable biofuels 


Corresponding author Biography

João Gomes was awarded a BSc, PhD and Habilitation in Chemical Engineering, from the Technical University of Lisbon, and is a full Professor of Chemical Engineering at ISEL – Lisbon Polytechnic, since 2006. Previously he was a research assistant in the Centre Chemical Processes at the Technical University of Lisbon, a research fellow at National Laboratories for Engineering and at the R&D Department of ISQ, a Portuguese inspection company where he was also Deputy Director, managing the Environmental Division. He lectured at the Technical University of Lisbon, Lusofona University and Atlantica University. His main research interests are Clean Processes, Air Pollution, Nanoparticles and Nanotoxicology.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Pending Registration

Article Title: Decarbonisation of the apple fruit supply chain.

Author(s): Zoe Heuschkel and Michael Blanke.

Abstract

Consumers in many countries prefer local food of regional origin. In the UK, priority is often given to historic desert apple varieties such as ‘Cox’s Orange Pippin’ (1825), ‘Egremont Russet’ (1872), ‘Discovery’ , ‘Spartan’, ‘Beauty of Bath’ (1864), cider apples and the cooking apple cv. ‘Bramley’s Seedling’ (1883) in the UK and similarly ‘Roter Berlepsch’ and ‘Boskoop’ in Germany. However, some of the imported goods can have a lower carbon footprint i.e. better environmental score irrespective of the food miles involved, e.g. tomatoes imported from open field production in winter in Spain into the UK versus home-grown greenhouse tomatoes.

In our part of the world, apples are harvested in autumn. To provide year-round supply for the consumers, apples have to be stored commonly using electricity of the National grid. For home-grown apples, this storage (cooling and grading) is the largest contributor to the environmental burden.

Our idea is whether this fruit storage could made be more environmental-friendly by solar panels on the roofs of the storage rooms. The challenge is the time, i.e. winter, with the lowest possible energy gain and conversion of solar energy to electricity. Primary (fossil) energy analysis is used here as scientific based on global radiation values for the Southerly fruit growing regions such as Kent, Somerset and Hereford and concomitantly the Meckenheim fruit growing region near Bonn. Two scenarios are employed, a) a static one where the fruit are stored (and require energy) over 5 months and b) a dynamic one, where fruit are successively removed from the store, requiring more energy at the start and less energy at the end of the storage period; both aiming at a cleaner more environmental-friendly apple production. The results are discussed with previous projects such as “383 ppm” (for 383 ppm CO2), when energy for cooling and storage of UK apple was saved by picking and loading the fruit at times of cooler temperatures like morning and evening (rather than in the warmer afternoon).

Keywords

Decarbonisation; fruit storage; primary energy analysis (PEA); solar energy.

Highlights
  • 1) Home-grown apples are preferred by the consumer in terms of taste, firmness, freshness and local varieties such as Cox, Bramley’s
  • 2) Apples are harvested in September, but
  • 3) The largest component of the supply chain is the fruit storage over winter
  • 4) The objective of the project is decarbonisation of the apple supply chain
  • 5) The approach and challenge is to use solar panels to decarbonise the apple supply chain.


Corresponding author Biography

Zoe Heuschkel is a PhD student with the University of Bonn. She finished her Master after her studies of Agricultural Sciences at the University of Bonn (2004-2007). After her master degree, she managed a project on suburban agriculture at Osnabrück (2014-2017), followed by a project management on sustainability at Schloss Tuernich (2018-2020). The present work is on sustainability labelling for regional apple growers.

Dr. M. Blanke Is senior researcher and lecturer at INRES- Horticultural Science, University of Bonn, Germany

– His 270 publications achieved 6,200 citations (Google scholar)

– His h-factor is 39 and he has delivered 198 talks worldwide 

– He was a pioneer in carbon footprinting with Thema 1 and a German supermarket for early season strawberries imported from Spain into Germany in 2000

– He instigated the comparative study of home-grown versus apples imported from New Zealand in 2005 based on primary energy analysis, downloaded > 2,000 times

– With his team of students, he published carbon footprints for apples, asparagus, table and wine grapes, pumpkin, rhubarb and strawberries and German wine

– He was one of the masterminds behind the carbon footprint standard PAS 2050-1 (horticulture) of BSI London


CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Pending Registration

Article Title: A Systemic and Multi-disciplinary Diagnosis Model for Microgrids Sustainability Studies.

Author(s): Antoine Boche, Clément Foucher and Luiz Fernando Lavado Villa

Abstract

There is a growing research interest in studying microgrids in rural areas as a means to promote energy access. These microgrids could be the key to energy access on a global scale because of their many advantages compared to classic grid expansion. Despite all these qualities, feedback from microgrids in rural areas shows that most fail to reach sustainability, but the reasons for their long-term failure are still not a consensus in the literature. This work intends to contribute to understanding microgrids’ sustainability and their expansion by modelling them using a systemic vision approach. For this purpose, we propose a diagnosis tool that includes energy, financial, information and social aspects. A series of study cases are analyzed through this approach, showing it as a possible diagnostic tool for microgrids in the short and long term.

Keywords

Energy Modeling & Design, Grid System, Diagnosis, Rural Electrification, Sustainable Development, Systemic Approach

Highlights
  • A new way to study microgrids in a systemic way by taking into account four domains: energy, information, financial and social.
  • A new comprehensive model for representing the health state of a microgrid for the diagnosis of its internal faults. This method gathers all the internal complexity inherent to microgrids in a few key indicators based on the global equilibrium between the four stated domains.
  • Real-life case studies are used to illustrate and discuss the contributions of this new microgrid notation..


Corresponding author Biography

Antoine Boche is an engineer in electrical and automatic engineering who graduated from ENSEEIHT in Toulouse in 2019; he is currently studying at LAAS-CNRS in Toulouse for his PhD. His research work focuses on understanding microgrid expansion issues, especially for rural electrification. His research work has led him to the study of systemic models to address this issue by taking into account the energetical, information, financial and social aspects of the system.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Pending Registration

Article Title: Performance control of the photovoltaic system with Induction Motor-Centrifugal Compressor applied in the Sahara of Algeria.

Author(s): Moulay-Idriss CHERGUI, Abderrahmane AISSA, M. Zareb, Mohammed Sahnoun, Youcef Benmimoun and Fethi Bakkara.

Abstract

Excessive use of electricity production by fossil energy is a polluting factor of nature and use the electrical energy in remote or deserted areas by conventional means is often costly factor, but with solar energy, especially photovoltaic, is considered to be most convenient due to availability climate to produce electrical and sufficient area for any amount of energy appropriate. In this paper, we attempt to size and control a photovoltaic pumping and discharge natural gas system in the Sahara, using the incremental conductibility-maximum power point tracking method to operate the photovoltaic generator to its maximum power and the vector-based method to control the associated induction motor and centrifugal compressor. With these latest, we optimize system efficiency.

Keywords

photovoltaic; maximum power point; PWM-inverter; induction motor; flux-oriented control; Compressor.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Pending Registration

Article Title: Dynamic simulation of urban experimental scale WWTP by application of ASM1.

Author(s): Tawfik El Moussaoui, Mohamed oussama Belloulid, Laila Mandi, Fouad Zouhir, Hugues Jupsin and Naaila Ouazzani.

Abstract

In this paper, we describe the dynamic simulation of urban experimental scale activated sludge experimental system by the application of activated sludge model 1 ASM1 using Worldwide Engine for Simulation and Training program WEST. The experiment was carried out to better understand and master the mechanisms of urban biological treatment, manage dysfunctions and optimize the operating parameters of this biological process. The model was constructed by ASM1 equations in the WEST platform. Calibration of the parameters was based on experimental data obtained from the conventional activated sludge pilot plant. The ASM1 developed model; calibrated and validated is a well proven and representative tool for the biological treatment of urban wastewater by the conventional activated sludge pilot. The ASM1 will allow to predict in a precise way the spatiotemporal process evolution and operation.

Keywords

ASM1, WEST, Biological process, Calibration, Urban wastewater.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Pending Registration

Article Title: Modified UiO-66 on Ni and improvement of dyes removal.

Author(s): Tran Ba Luan.

Abstract

Metal-organic frameworks are seen to be good adsorbents for dyes due to their large surface area, ordering, and flexible structure. This work is the first presented investigation into the effect of modification of MOFs in dye adsorption on UiO-66. Two samples of Ni/UiO-66 and mothers – UiO-66 were prepared under normal stirring and heating conditions to increase the positive charge of the surface. The characterization using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FTIR indicated the promotion of acid sites on UiO-66, while Raman spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) confirmed the successful addition of Nickel into the UiO-66 structure at the amount of about 1.0 wt %.

Results obtained for methyl orange (MO) adsorption on the surface have shown enhanced adsorption capacity of Ni-UiO-66 compared to parent UiO-66. Moreover, the experiments with highly selective removal of anionic dye as compared to cationic dye were performed and explained in detail for mixed dye solutions of MO with methylene blue (MB), indicating the important role of the electrostatic attraction mechanism. Notably, it is shown that the addition of Ni to UiO-66 results in a higher effect of electrostatic interaction than traditional UiO-66.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Pending Registration

Article Title: Statistical Modeling of Brick Properties for Natural-Evaporative Cooling Applications

Author(s): Nida Noorani Ikiz and Mehmet Çaputçu

Abstract

As the global warming related problems enter the agenda of a wider portion of the world population, there is growing attention to power consumption due to indoor air conditioning. Reducing the use of fossil fuels in this context is a prime target. A prominent idea in this context is the use of renewable energy sources and renewable materials. Zero-Emission buildings or Carbon-Neutral structures are, therefore, in the forefront of the solution package. The present study aims to contribute to the design and construction of such buildings and structures. A set of formulas are developed to estimate the saturated permeability and capillarity of the clay bricks, which can be used for the natural evaporative cooling applications. These formulae are obtained from a statistical analysis of a set of experimental data. Accordingly, by using the baking temperature and the grain size of the clay bricks, one can calculate the saturated permeability and capillarity of the resultant brick. This information can, then, be used for a performance calculation of the overall structure, including water flow rate, power consumption savings and effective temperature drop.

Keywords

Evaporative cooling, clay, natural refrigeration.

Corresponding author Biography

Nida Noorani Ikiz was born on the 15th of December 1977 in Izmir/TURKEY. She completed her Bachelors degree on Environmental Engineering at Dokuz Eylul University in 1999. She also got her MBA from the same university while she went to USA to pursue her academic career. She joined Ohio University in year 2001 and obtained her Masters in Science degree in Civil Engineering in year 2004. She continued doing her PhD in Integrated Engineering which involved choosing two other engineering branches together with Civil Engineering and obtaining the doctorate whilst specialising on Industrial, Mechanical and Environmental Engineering. The PhD program was completed in 2008. Dr. Ikiz is a Licensed Professional Engineer in the state of OH since 2007 and works at Suar Engineering & Trade and Limited Company in Turkey. She is married and is the mother of two teenage daughter of hers..

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Pending Registration

Article Title: Plant For Producing Electrical Energy, Refrigeration And Heating Using The Hybrid Compression Technology And The Ambient Energy Exclusively.

Author(s): Staicovici Mihail-Dan.

Abstract

The plant uses the ambient energy exclusively in order to produce electrical energy, refrigeration or heating. It is based on original research of the author in the domain of the hybrid compression begun eight years ago. It is independent energetically. It can be operated in all parts of the world, in urban area or isolated geographically and is capable to ensure energy 24 h / day and 365 days / year. The cost of the fuel is null and that of maintenance is minimum. It is perfect ecological and could have an important impact in planet global warming reduction. A few plant technical features follow:

  • Working combination / working agent: ammonia-water / ammonia;
  • Heat / cold ambient source temperature: T ESS=⌈(-36)-(+63)⌉℃;
  • Specific net electrical capacity: W ns=(100-500) kJ*kg -1;
  • Specific refrigeration capacity: q refr=1450 kJ*kg -1;
  • Minimum refrigeration temperature: T DI=-75℃;
  • Heating specific capacity: q inc=1400 kJ*kg -1;
  • Heating temperature: T inc=(50-120)℃;
  • Estimated height/length/depth: 2.0×2.0x2.0 m;
  • Estimated max. weight: 750 kg;
  • Estimated max. price / energy type: 100.000 Euro;
  • Investment payback period: max. 1 year;
  • Estimated lifetime: 15 years.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Pending Registration

Article Title: Porphyrin-based segregated donor/acceptor arrays for potential application in organic solar cells.

Author(s): Maher Fathalla.

Abstract

The present study discusses the synthesis and characterization of a rigid acceptor-donor-acceptor triad 3 comprising Zn porphyrin (as donor) and a tetracationic cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT 4+) (as acceptor). The copper(I)-catalyzed Huisgen alkyne-azide 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC “click” reaction) was implemented using a dialkyne substituted Zn porphyrin 1 and azide-functionalized cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) 2 to achieve the target triad 3. The resulting triad was fully characterized by NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) measurements. In addition, the X-ray crystal structure of 3 revealed a Z-shape of 3 in which the two cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) are in the opposite sides of the Zn porphyrin plane thus leading to the formation of segregated donor/acceptor arrays of 3 at the solid state, a phenomenon that could make 3 a potential candidate as active materials for bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs) applications. Furthermore, the photo-induced electron transfer processes within triad 3 from the central Zn porphyrin (donor) to tetracationic cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (acceptor) moieties were investigated through steady-state fluorescence studies.

Keywords

Light harvesting, Organic Solar Cells, Photosynthesis, Electron-transfer, Porphyrin, Donor/acceptor arrays.

Highlights
  • Synthesis of a new porphyrin-based acceptor-donor-acceptor triad
  • X-ray crystal structure demonstrated segregated donor/acceptor arrays of the reported triad

Photoinduced electron transfer within triad was investigated.

Corresponding author Biography

Dr Maher Fathalla obtained his PhD from Tulane University, USA in 2010 where he worked on the synthesis and photophysical properties of supramolecular assemblies based on porphyrin and fullerene. In 2011, he was offered a postdoctoral fellowship by Sir Fraser Stoddart at the Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University where he worked on different aspects of supramolecular chemistry. Currently, Dr Fathalla is working as an associate professor at the Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Islamic University of Madinah, Saudi Arabia. His research interests are centered on harnessing supramolecular chemistry to assemble functional nanomaterials for potential applications in environmental, biomedical and renewable energy arenas.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Pending Registration

Article Title: New Independent Control of a Bi-Machine System Powered by a Multi-Leg Inverter Applied to Four In-Wheel Motor Drive Electric Vehicle.

Author(s): Karim A. Belhia, Kada Hartani, Norediene Aouadj and Tarik Mohammed Chikouche.

Abstract

The structure of the traction system studied in this work comprises four permanent magnet synchronous motors, powered by a single five-leg three-phase inverter, driving the four in-wheel motor drive electric vehicle. This structure makes it possible to achieve the behavior of a mechanical differential and to require the parallel wheel-motors to turn at identical or different speeds by imposing an independent control on each driving wheel. For this particular structure, an inverter leg is shared for two phases of two machines. The other two phases of each machine are connected to their own two separate inverter legs. The main contribution of this work is to propose a new DTC technique for the control of an electric vehicle (EV) equipped with two set bi-PMSM motor-wheels connected in parallel and powered by a single three-phase inverter, one on the front axle and the other on the rear axle. System simulation using Matlab/Simulink software shows that this new control technique can ensure excellent dynamics of the electric vehicle driving system.

Keywords

Multi-leg inverters; multi-machine multi-converter system; direct torque control; electric vehicle.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Pending Registration

IEECP’21 Accepted Papers

The International Conference on Innovations in Energy Engineering & Cleaner Production (IEECP’21) has been held in Silicon Valley, San Francisco, California – USA from 29-30 July, 2021